Flashcards in Determinants, Equity & Interventions Deck (59)
What are the steps of Maslow's Hierarchy?
Physiological ->safety -> love/belonging ->esteem -> self-actualisation
What are the factors that make up the physiological section of Maslow's hierarchy?
Breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion
What are the factors that make up the safety?
Security of body, of employment, of resources, of morality, of the family, of health, of property
What are the factors that make up the love/belonging section of Maslow's hierarchy?
Friendship, family, sexual intimacy
What are the factors that make up the esteem section of Maslow's hierarchy?
Self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others
What are the factors that make up the self-actualisation section of Maslow's hierarchy?
Morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts
What is the definition of epigenetics?
The way that genes and the environment interact and affect each others
What is the theory behind epigenetics?
The expression of the genome depends on the environment. No individual ever has the same experience as another. We are each unique and need to be regarded as such. Genetic predisposition, not determination is the key.
How is biology and biography relayed to epigenetics?
The human organism relates to, and is integrated with, it's environment. Lived experience affects human biology. Both interact to contribute substantially to health and disease.
What is allostasis?
Stability through change. Our physiological systems have adapted to react rapidly to environmental stressors. They are programmed to be turned on and off efficiently, but not too frequently
What is the population perspective?
Think in terms of groups rather than individual
What are the determinants of health?
Genes, environment (physical, social and economic), lifestyle and health care
What are the three stages of health determinants?
Individual lifestyle factors -> social and community networks -> general socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions
What sort of thing makes up the general socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions?
Agriculture & food production; education; work environment; unemployment; water and sanitation; healthcare services; housing
What is the difference between equity and equality?
Equity is about what is fair and just. Equality is concerned with equal shares
What is horizontal equity?
Equal treatment for equal need e.g. patients with pneumonia (with all other things being equal) should be treated equally
What is vertical equity?
Unequal treatment for unequal need e.g. individuals with common cold vs pneumonia need unequal treatment. e.g. areas with poorer health may need higher expenditure on health services
What are the different forms of health equity?
Equal expenditure for equal need; equal access for equal need; equal utilisation for equal need; equal healthcare for equal need; equal health
What are the dimensions of health equity?
Spatial (geographical) or social (age, gender, socio-economic class, ethnicity)
How do you examine health equity?
Supply of health care; access of health care; utilisation of health care; health care outcomes; health status' resource allocation (healthcare vs other areas); other wider determinants of health
What are the wider determinants of health?
Diet, smoking, healthcare seeking behaviour; socio-economic and physical environment
How do you assess health equity?
Typically you assess inequality. then if it is inequitable then you need to explain the inequalities
What is the issue in assessing equity?
Equity is often defined in terms of equal access for equal need. But it is usually determined using utilisation, health status or supply
What are the three domain in public health practice?
Health improvement, health protection and improving services
What is health improvement concerned with?
Concerned with social interventions (not primarily delivered through health services) aimed at preventing disease, promoting health and reducing inequalities
What is health protection concerned with?
Concerned with measures to control infectious disease risks and environmental hazard
What is improving healthcare services concerned with?
Concerned with organisation and delivery of safe, high quality services for prevention, treatment and care
What are the areas involved with health improvement?
Inequalities, housing, education, employment, lifestyles, family/community
What are the areas involved with health protection?
Infectious diseases, chemicals and poisons, radiation, emergency response, environmental health hazards