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Flashcards in Dermatology Deck (219)
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1

Skin + UVB=

Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3)

2

The liver converts Vitamin D3 into

Calcidiol (25-hydroxy Vitamin D)

3

The Kidneys convert 25 hydroxy Vitamin D (Calcidiol) into

active 1,25 dihydroxy Vitamin D (Calcitriol)

4

Fitzpatrick Skin Types I and II

I. Never tans, always burns
II. Tans with difficulty, usually burns

5

Fitzpatrick skin types III and IV

III. Average tanning, sometimes burns
IV. Easily tans, rarely burns

6

Fitzpatrick skin types V and VI

V. Very easy to tan, very rarely burns
VI. Never burns

7

Types of cells present in the epidermis

Keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, Melanocytes

8

Two types f melanin produced by melanocytes

Eumalanin: black to brown pigment
Pheomelanin: yellow to red-brown pigment

9

Skin pigmentation is due to:

TYPE OF MELANIN PRODUCED,
AS WELL AS SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION OF MELANOSOMES

10

Distribution of melanosomes in Light skin vs dark skin

in light skin, the melanosomes are smaller and are distributed in clusters above the nucleus in the keratinocyte, in dark skin, the melanosomes are larger and distributed individually throughout the cytoplasm of the keratinocyte

11

The absence of melanocytes is called _____. Where is it commonly seen?

Vitiligo, commonly seen in periorifacial and acral locations

12

Layers of the epidermis

Stratum corneum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
stratum basalis

13

How long does renewal of the epidermis take?

28 days

14

Hemidesmosome

Attachment point of basal cells to the basal lamina of the dermal epidermal junction

15

Bullous Pemphigoid

Autoantibodies to BP180 (type XVII collagen) or BP230, both found int he hemidesmosomes. Causes subepiderman blisters and tense bulla. Most common autoimmune bullous disorder. Treatment: prednisone

16

keratin,

a tough protective protein that makes up the majority of the structure of skin, hair and nails. MAde by keratinocytes of the epidermis

17

Desmosomes

structuresfor cell to cell adhesion (macula adherens)
• Contain intracellular keratin filaments and transmembrane proteins, desmogleins and desmocollins

18

Acquired antibodies to desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3 cause ____ _____

pemphigus vulgaris

19

Pemphigus Vulgaris

-Primary skin lesions are flaccid bulla (Nickolsky sign positive)
-Pathology: Intraepidermal blisters
• painful oral erosions
• Other mucous membranes can be involved (eyes, GI and GU mucosa)
• Treatment: Prednisone or other immunosupressives

20

What cell layer do the cells start to lose their nuclei?

Statum granulosum

21

What do the granules of keratinocytes contain?

keratohyalin granules contain filaggrin, which X-links keratin, lamellar bodies excrete ceramics

22

What is the stratum corneum composed of? What keeps it moist?

dead and desquaming keratinocytes. Natural moisturizing factor (NMF) keeps it moist

23

Patients with ______ mutations have significantly reduced levels of the NMF in the stratum corneum and exhibit increased _______ water loss

filaggrin
transepidermal

24

Merkel cells

Small cells associated with nerve endings in epidermis. Their function has long been uncertain, but they seem to be involved in neural development and tactile sensation. Recent evidence supports a role for Merkel cells in light touch

25

Macule

Flat area of color change
Less than 1.0 cm
Can be hyper pigmented or hypopigmented

26

Patch

Flat area of color change
Greater than 1.0 cm
Can be hyper pigmented (think cafe au lait spot) or hypopigmented

27

Papule

Discrete,solid,elevatedbody
• Less than 1 cm in diameter
• May be further classified by surface change
– Scale, Crust

28

Plaque

• Solid,flat-topped,elevated area of skin
• Greater than 1cm and broader than thick
• May be further classified by surface change

29

Nodule

• Firm and well-defined lesion
• May be dermal or subcutaneous
• Greater than 1.0 cm

30

Scale

• Excess stratum corneum (outermost layer)
• May appear as flakes or plates
• Color usually white or gray