Day 1 part 1- Cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Day 1 part 1- Cancer Deck (55)
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Epidemiology: 2 reasons for different occurrence rate

~different forms of cancer


What is the top 3 new cases of cancer for females? *for your info

~lung and bronchus
~colon and rectum


What is the top 3 new cases of cancer for males? *for your info

~lung and bronchus
~colon and rectum


Does occurrence rate and mortality rate stay the same for different cancers?

*also is difference between countries


What is the top 3 mortality rates of cancer for females? *for your info

~lung and bronchus
~colon and rectum


What is the top 3 mortality rates of cancer for males? *for your info

~lung and bronchus
~colon and rectum


What are some of the most common risk factors for cancer?

~Age over 50
~family history (first generation)
~env and lifestyle


Some extra info on risk factors:

~More than half of all cancer deaths in the US could be prevented through healthier lifestyle and better use of screening
~Some is just “the plain dumb bad luck of the universe”


What is the most important risk factor for cancer?



Name some of the nonmodifiable risk factors:

~Previous history of cancer
~Skin color
~Heredity (identified oncogenes)
~Age of menarche, menopause
~Adenamotous polyps
~Inflammatory bowel disease
~Fat distribution patterns
~Congenital immunodeficiencies
~Congenital diseases
~Long-term helicobacter infection


Name some of the modifiable risk factors:

~Smoking/ use of smokeless tobacco
~Chemical or other exposure (eg paint, cadmium, dye, rubber, arsenic, asbestos, radon, benzene, ionizing radiation, Agent Orange, pesticides, herbicides, organic amines)
~Urban dwelling
~Alcohol consumption (more than 1-2 drinks per day)
~Sedentary lifestyle
~Obesity; high diet in animal fat
~Insulin resistance (elevated serum insulin)
~Radiation/ chemotherapy treatment
~Estrogen replacement therapy
~Ionized radiation
~HTLV-1 (virus)
~Previous lung scarring
~Organ transplant (immunosuppression)
~HIV infection
~Chronic exposure to UV rays
~Geographic location
~Smoked foods, salted fish and meats (nitrates and nitrites)
~Tamoxifen use
~Vitamin B12 deficiency
~Lack of access to or use of health care and screening tests


More details on cancer and age

~cancer risk increase with age
~greater increase in men with age but also seen in women
~varies by cancer type
(testicular cancer is more common in men ages 20-40)
(breast cancer increases rapidly after age 45)
(childhood cancers- acute leukemia, etc)


More details on race and ethnicity and cancer

~Racial disparities in incidence & mortality
(increase risk African-American populations- 40% higher mortality rate)
(increased risk some Native American & Hispanic populations)
~Related to access to medical care
~Related to different environmental factors
~Related to preventable risk factors


More details on family history

~important factor only for first generation family members
~some basic hallmarks of families with a history of caner:
*diagnosis of caner in two or more relatives in the family
*diagnosis of caner in a family member under the age of 50
*occurrence of the same type of cancer in several family members
*occurrence of more than one type of cancer in one person
*occurrence of a rare type of cancer in one or more members of a family


More details on genetics

~BRCA 1 & 2 for breast cancer
~Li-Fraumeni Syndrome – inherited chromosomal mutations of the p53 or CHK2 tumor suppressor genes – very rare (400 people from 64 families)
*Variety of cancers in this group, but common denominator is the genetic mutation
~FAP (familial adenomatosis polyposis) – colon cancer


Which does she classify as a lifestyle risk factor?

~Excessive alcohol ~consumption
*Low fiber-high fat diet
*High fiber vegetables & fruits
*Red meat
~Sedentary lifestyle
~Obesity & type 2 diabetes
~Sexual activity & reproductive behaviors
*Both high and low related to different cancers
*Pregnancy, child-bearing & lactation decrease cancer risk


What is HPV?

Human papilloma virus
~It has a strong link to cervical cancer
~Gardasil gives ~65% protection


Which does she classify as environmental risk factors?

~Chemicals (herbicides, insecticides, dyes)
~Asbestos & other particulate matter
~Ionizing radiation – healthcare workers, power plants, construction, geological work
~Agent Orange – chronic lymphocytic leukemia, soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma


Carcinomas are

a malignant tumor that comprises epithelial tissue
~it accounts for 85% of cancers
~can arise form breast, colon, pancreas, skin, large intestines, lungs, stomach
~metastasizes through lymphatic


Sarcomas are

a fleshy over growth
~refers to a large variety of tumors arising in the connective tissues
~can develop from fat, muscle, bone, cartilage, synovium, fibrous tissues
~metastasizes hematogenously


Lymphomas are

originates in the lymphoid tissues
~lymph nodes, spleen, intestinal lining


Leukemias are

cancers of the hematologic system


S/S of cancer (basic)

**Symptoms often only occur when the disease has progressed
~Lumps & abnormal growths
~Persistent cough
~Change in bowel & bladder habits
~Unusual bleeding or discharge
~Pain, which may be specific or not (myalgia, fibromyalgia, arthralgias, headaches)


S/S of integumentary (table 13-5)

~any skin lesion or observable/ palpable skin changes
~any observable or palpable changes to the nail beds
~unusual mole (ABCDE)
~cluster mole formation
~bleeding or discharge from mole, skin lesion, scar, or nipple
~ tenderness and soreness around mole; sore than does not heal


S/S of musculoskeletal (table 13-5)

~may present as an asymptomatic soft tissue mass
~bone pain
**deep or localized
**increased with activity
**decreased tolerance to WB; antalgic gait
**does not respond to physical agents
~soft tissue swelling
~pathologic fracture
~back or rib pain


S/S of Neurologic (table 13-5)

~drowsiness, lethargy
~increased sleeping
~irritability, personality change
~change in mental state, memory loss, difficulty concentrating
~vision changes (blurring, blind spots, double vision)
~balance and coordination issues
~change in deep tendon reflexes
~change in muscle tone for ind with previously diagnosed neurologic conditions
~+ Babinski reflex
~changes in B/B
~myotomal weakness pattern
~paraneoplastic syndrome


S/S of pulmonary (table 13-5)

~pleural pain
~new onset of wheezing
~productive cough with rust, green, or yellow-tinged sputum


S/S of hepatic (table 13-5)

~Abdominal pain and tenderness
~distended abdomen
~dilated upper abdominal veins
~peripheral edema
~general malaise and fatigue
~bilateral carpal/ tarsal tunnel syndrome
~asterixis (liver flap)
~palmar erythema (liver palm)
~spider angiomas (over the abdomen
~Nail beds of Terry
~right shoulder pain


What are the 3 screening approaches (categories)?

~Inspection & Palpation
~Blood tests & Cytology


What are the 4 inspection/ palpation mentioned in the slides?

~Regular physical exam
~Skin inspection
~Buccal cavity & throat inspection
~Palpation of thyroid, testicles, breast (self/clinical), prostate (DRE, digital rectal exam) & lymph nodes