Flashcards in Cytokines, Chemokines and their receptors Deck (48)
What is a cytokine?
Proteins secreted by cells that mediate the functions of the immune system.
What are the cellular sources of cytokines?
- all cells of innate immune system
- all cells of adaptive immunity
- other cells....
What is a interleukin (Cytokine)?
Term refers to fact that many proteins are produced by one immune cell to act on neighboring cells. (They work between cells)
What are the 6 general properties of Cytokines?
1. Cytokine secretion is brief and self limited.
2. Cytokine action is pleiotropic and redundant.
3. Cytokines influence each other.
4. Cytokine initiate their actions by binding to specific membrane-bound receptors.
5. Cytokines can act locally or systemically.
6. Cytokine receptor liagtion leads to gene expression which alters Cellular function.
True or false, Cytokines can be antagonistic to each other?
Cytokines can act in ________.
What are chemokines associated with?
_____ stimulates the production of IFN-Gamma.
What are the two main types of Cytokines involved in innate immunity?
- Proinflammatory = TNF-alpha (Main one)
- Antiinflammatory = IL-10 & TGF-B
What are the main producers of TNF-aplha?
Monocytes, macrophages, NK cells, and T cells are main ones.
What is the important function of TNF-alpha?
Stimulates the recruitment of neutrophils, monocytes and activated T-cells to the site of infection.
TNF-alpha increases the expression of _____ & then ______.
E- Selectin and the P-selectin
True or false, TNF-alpha can has only beneficial effects.
False, it can also have detrimental effects. High levels result in septic shock, while moderate levels result in fever.
Interlukin 1 (IL-1) has what two forms?
IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta
- have same biological function
What cells produce IL-1?
Primary producers are mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophils.
______ shares many of the same effects as TNF-alpha.
What are THE BIG 3 Proinflammatory cytokines?
What produces IL-6?
Macrophages and T cells mostly
What is the function of IL-6?
Involved with induction of inflammatory response, but PRIMARILY involved with the induction of the acute phase response.
What makes you "feel sick" when you are ill?
Cytokines (IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-1( get into brain pathways and help create sickness symptoms such as:
Loss of appetite
loss of sex drive
What is the function of IL-12?
Primary mediator of the innate immune response to intracellular pathogens and Important for the generation of immune response that would be appropriate.
True or False, IL-12 activates macrophages.
FALSE! it does not directly activate macrophages. it does so through t helper cells.
____ is a key Th2 cytokine.
What is the function of IL-4?
It can induce naive Th sells to differentiate into th2 cells that will produce more IL-4 or IL-13 or IL-5.
____ is the primary stimulus for Ig class switching to IgE/
What is the Job of IL-13?
- very similar to IL-4 both structurally and functionally.
- PRIMARY job is to help induce Ig isotype switching to IgE.
- *Also stimulates mucous production in gut and lung (unique function)
-* can facilitate inflammation by increasing adhesion molecule and chemokine expression.
What is the Job of IL-5?
PRIMARY job is in eosinophil differentiation, proliferation and activation.
*Eosinophils are necessary for protection against parasites.
______ & _____ are involved in allergic responses.
IL-5 & other Th2 cytokines
_______ is important for immune response against EXTRAcelluar pathogens.
Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, IL-5)