CV A&P and Systemic circulation ppt <3 <3 <3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CV A&P and Systemic circulation ppt <3 <3 <3 Deck (116)
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1

the average heart weighs how much

250- 350 grams

2

3 main components of the myocardium

RV wall

LV wall

Myocyte

 

3

The RV wall is how thick?

0.3-0.5 cm thick

4

The LV wall is how thick?

1.3-1.5 cm thick

just know that basiclly the LV is over twice as thick

5

5 components of the myocyte

  1. cell membrane + T tubules
  2. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
  3. Contractile elements
  4. Mitochondria
  5. Nucleus

**** huge volume of mitochondria!!!!!****

6

The huge volume of mitochondria in the myocyte means what????

aerobic metabolism

7

what is greater than 90% of the volume of the myocardium

the myocyte

8

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what is  the contractile elemement of the myocyte?

  • sacromere (actin and myocin filaments)

A sarcomere (Greek sárx = "flesh", méros = "part") is the basic unit of a muscle. Muscles are composed of tubular muscle cells (myocytes or myofibers). Muscle cells are composed of tubular myofibrils. Myofibrils are composed of repeating sections of sarcomeres, which appear under the microscope as dark and light bands. Sarcomeres are composed of long, fibrous proteins that slide past each other when the muscles contract and relax.

Two of the important proteins are myosin, which forms the thick filament, and actin, which forms the thin filament. Myosin has a long, fibrous tail and a globular head, which binds to actin. The myosin head also binds to ATP, which is the source of energy for muscle movement. Myosin can only bind to actin when the binding sites on actin are exposed by calcium ions
 

9

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Sacromeres are integrated by what?

  • intercalated disk and gap junctions

intercalcated disk are microscopic identifying features of cardiac muscle. Cardiac muscle consists of individual heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) connected by intercalated discs to work as a single functional organ or syncitium. By contrast, skeletal muscle consists of multinucleated muscle fibers and exhibit no intercalated discs. Intercalated discs support synchronised contraction of cardiac tissue. They occur at the Z line of the sarcomere and can be visualized easily when observing a longitudinal section of the tissue.

Three types of adhering junctions make up an intercalated disc — fascia adherens, macula adherens and gap junctions.
Fascia adherens are anchoring sites for actin, and connect to the closest sarcomere.
Macula adherens stop separation during contraction by binding intermediate filaments, joining the cells together. Macula adherens junctions are also called desmosomes.
Gap junctions allow action potentials to spread between cardiac cells by permitting the passage of ions between cells, producing depolarization of the heart muscle
 

10

What are 3 specialized myocytes?

  1. SA node
  2. AV node
  3. bundle of his

11

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Which leads shows an inferior MI?

what artery is invloved

II, III, AVF

Right Coronary Artery

12

Which leads shows a Lateral MI?

what artery is invloved

I, AVL, V5, V6

Left Circ

13

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Which leads shows an Anterior MI?

what artery is invloved

V3-V4 (I, AVL)

Left Coronary artery

14

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Which leads shows an Anteroseptal MI?

what artery is invloved

V1-V2

LAD

15

myocardial circulation occurs mostly during what?

and why

diastole

BC of interruption of blood flow during
systole, due to mechanical compression of vessels by myocardial contraction and the
absence of anastomoses between the left and right coronary arteries

16

what is the average ml/min of myocardial circulation?

200-250 ml/ml

17

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Another characteristic of the coronary circulation is that  maximal oxygen extraction of ___1__ %
occurs, resulting in a coronary venous oxygen saturation of about __2____%.

  1. 70%
  2. 30%

18

what is the coronary sinus

a collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the heart muscle (myocardium) and  It delivers deoxygenated blood to the right atrium, as do the superior and inferior vena cava.

19

The coronary sinus is what % of venous return?

75%

(it seems like a lot but thats what his slides say and I cound't find anythng in the book slide #10)

20

what veins make up the coronary sinus?

posterior veins

RV=anterior veins

Thebesian veins (shunt)

21

Layers of the heart

parietal pericardium

epicardium (visceral pericardium)

myocardium

endocardium

 

22

Most of the oxygenated
blood reaching the fetal heart is from  the ____1____ vein and the __2___ __2___ __2____

  1. umbilical
  2. inferior vena cava

23

 

what is the fetal blood flow starting with the IVF

oxygenated blood  from the IVC goes into the RA then
diverted through the foramen ovale  to the LA  to the LV then  pumped out the aorta to the head

IVC > RA > FO > LA > LV > AO > systemic (head)

24

What is fetal circulation starting with the SVC

Deoxygenated blood from the  superior vena cava enters the  RA goes to the RV, then enters the (PA) the pulmonary artery goes through the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) to the aorta to the feet and umbilical
arteries.

SVC > RA > RV > PA > PDA > AO > systemic (feet)

25

in the fetal circulation the RV makes up  what part of CO

2/3

26

anatomic closure of the PDA occurs when after birth

2-3 weeks

27

what are the 2 main classification of valves in the heart

AV

semilunar

28

WHat are the 2 AV valves

tricuspid

mitral

29

what are the 2 semilunar valves of the heart

aortic and pulmonic

30

what is the blood flow through the heart then into circulation? (17 steps, once you leave the heart gets more basic)

  1. RA
  2. tricuspid
  3. RV
  4. pulmmonic valve
  5. PA
  6. lungs
  7. PV
  8. LA
  9. mitral valve
  10. LV
  11. Aotic valve
  12. aorta
  13. atreries
  14. aterioles
  15. capillaries
  16. venules
  17. veins