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Flashcards in Cutaneous Testing Deck (32)
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when is our ability to discriminate between 2 points greatest ?

when there is a low level of convergence 1st order sensory neurons onto 2nd order neurons in the spinal cord

1

where are the receptors for touch sensation localised ?

in the dermis and epidermis

2

what is used to assess touch thresholds ?

using von frey aesthesiometer

3

what fibres are activated for touch sensation in human skin ?

reliant exclusively on activation of myelinated sensory afferent fibres

4

what channels can capsaicin activate ?

activate ion channels that are linked to thermal heat perception

5

what is the Trpv1 channel permeable to ?

calcium ion s

6

what is the threshold for thermal pain sensitivity ?

>40 degrees

7

what is the Trpv2 channel activated by ?

activated by nociceptive heat stimuli

8

what pathway carries innocuous mechanical sensations to the brain and how does it ascend to the brain ?

dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway
ascends to the brain in the ipsilateral spinal cord

9

where does the somatosensory cortex receive inputs from ?

ventro-basal complex within the thalamus

10

what does the 2-pt discrimination test tell us ?

it tells us that the 2-pt discrimination thresholds are different at different body surface locations

11

what factors influence human 2 point discrimination ?

- density of mechanoreceptors innervating an area of skin = if an area is more densely innervated by mechanoreceptors then the discrimination i smaller
- size of receptive field = area of skin contains many receptors with small receptive fields then the 2 point discrimination is smaller because the receptors are able to pack together more closely but still activate 2 different CNS neurons 2 enable 2 different points to be distinguished
- amount of cortical tissue deciphering the info= greater cortical representation means greater processing of mechanical activity

12

what is the firing adaptation, receptive field and physiological role of merkels disks?

- slow adaptation firing rates
- small receptive field
- detects form, shape, texture, rough edges of objects

13

what is the firing adaptation, receptive field and physiological role of ruffini's endings ?

- slow adaptation firing rates
- large receptive field
- detects lateral movements of the skin, indentation and stretching of the skin

14

what are the firing adaptations, receptive field and physiological role of meissners corpuscles ?

- fast adaptation firing rates
- small receptive field
- detects low frequency states ranging from 30-50Hz and rough textures and movements

15

what are the firing adaptations, receptive field and physiological role of pacinians corpuscles ?

- fast adaptation firing rates
- large receptive field
- detects high frequency vibrations within the range of 250-350Hz and fine textures and movements

16

explain the pathway involved in ascending non-painful touch to the brain ?

dorsal column medial lemniscus pathway
- primary afferents enter into the spinal cord via the dorsal roots and ascend to the medulla on the ipsilateral side
- 2 dorsal column pathways= fasiculus gracilis and fasiculus cuneatus
- in the medulla the first order neurons synapse with the 2nd order neurons which then decussate onto the contralateral side to ascend to the thalamus
- at the thalamus the 2nd order neurons synapse with the 3rd order neurons which then ascend to various areas in the cerebral cortex

17

what primary afferents are involved in innocuous touch sensation pathways ?

A alpha
A beta
A delta

18

what information does the fasiculus gracilis transmit ?

information caudal to T6

19

what information does fasiculus cuneatus transmit ?

information rostral to T6

20

if a correlation coefficient is close to 1 what does this tell you ?

indicates strong positive linear correlation
because it is a positive value it indicates a direct relationship whereas if it was close to -1 it would indicate an indirect relationship

21

why is the representation of mechanical stimuli greater than thermal stimuli ?

because there is a greater density of mechanoreceptors in the somatic nervous system and also the density of thermal receptors throughout the skin is not evenly spread out

22

what is the main receptor for hot thermal stimuli ?

Trpv1

23

what is the main receptor for thermal cold stimuli ?

Trpm8

24

what receptor is activated by capsaicin ?

the vanilloid receptor Trpv1

25

what happens to the sensitivity to thermal hot stimuli after capsaicin application to the skin and why ?

human sensitivity to thermal hot stimuli is more sensitive after capsaicin application because it inccreases the sensitivity of the VR1 receptors
- it causes increased sensitivity by causing the Trpv1 receptors to open at lower temperatures

26

what endogenous substances can increase the sensitivity of Trpv1 receptors and why does this occur ?

e.g. substance P and bradykinin
they increase the sensitivity of nociceptors by reducing the pain threshold and this is known as primary hyperalgesia

27

what should happen to the von frey tests after capsaicin application ?

it should cause the pain threshold to occur using a small diameter von frey hair because the Trpv1 receptors are thermal nociceptors and therefore it would be expected that they would become more sensitive to mechanical stimuli as nociceptors can be polymodal permitting their activation by mechanical stimulation

28

define magnification factor:

it is the amount by which a point on the skin is expanded in a central representation

29

what does an area containing cels with small receptive fields need ?

it needs a large number of cels to represent a given surface area