Culture, Demographics, and Social Inequality Flashcards Preview

MCAT Psychology/Sociology > Culture, Demographics, and Social Inequality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Culture, Demographics, and Social Inequality Deck (122)
Loading flashcards...
1

Culture

refers to a shared way of life, including beliefs and practices that a social group shares

2

Symbolic culture

consists of symbols that are recognized by. people of the same culture

3

Material culture

involves physical objects or artifacts (clothing, hairstyle, food, design of homes)

4

Non-material culture

specific to social thoughts and ideas, such as values

5

Popular culture

used. to describe. features of. culture that appeal to the masses, often those communicated through mass media

6

High culture

describes those features often limited. to the consumption of the elite

7

Values

can. be defined as a culture's standard for evaluating what is good or bad

8

Belief

convictions or principles. that people hold

9

Norms

visible and invisible rules of social conduct within a society

10

Cultural Diffusion

transfer of elements of culture from one social group to another

11

Cultural compentence

effective interactions between people from different cultures

12

Cultural transmission

process through which this information is spread across generations, or the mechanisms of learning

13

Social change

societies experience a change in state. Can be subtle, like development of new linguistic phrases or radical like revolution

14

Cultural lag

cultures take time to catch up with technological innovations; social problems and conflicts are caused by this lag

15

Culture shock

personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life. due to immigration, a visit to a new country, or a move between social environments

16

Reverse culture shock

involves same experiences, but upon an individual's return to their initial environment

17

Assimilation

the process by which a person or a group's culture comes to resemble those of another group

18

Multiculturalism

the preservation of various cultures or cultural identities within a single unified society

19

Ethonocentrism

the belief in the inherent superiority of ones own ethnic group or culture

20

Cultural Relativism

the principle that an individual human's beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual's own culture

21

Population growth rate

the rate of population change in a specified time period, reported as a percentage of the initial population

22

Overpopulation

there are more people than can be sustained

23

Carrying capacity

total possible population that can be supported with relevant resources. and. without significant negative effects in a given area

24

Population projections

estimates of future populations made from mathematical extrapolations of previous data

25

Crude birth rate

annual number of births per 1,000 people in a population

26

Crude death rate

annual number of deaths per 1,000 persons in a population

27

Rate of population change

difference between the crude birth rate and crude death rate

28

General fertility rate

annual number of births per 1,000 women in a population

29

Total fertility rate

predicts the total number of births per single woman in a population with the assumption that the woman experiences the current record age-specific fertility rates and reaches the end of her reproductive life

30

Replacement fertility rate

fertility rate at which the population will remain balanced