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Flashcards in CTM 1 Deck (102)
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Critical thinking def

“Critical thinking is the disciplined art of ensuring that you use the best thinking you are capable of in any set of circumstances.” (Paul & Elder, 2014)


Characteristics of critical thinkers (8)

Intellectual humility
Intellectual justice
Intellectual perseverance
Intellectual fair-mindedness
Confidence in reason
Intellectual courage
Intellectual empathy
Intellectual autonomy


Intellectual humility

aware of knowledge limitations


Intellectual justice

Evaluation of two sides fairly


Intellectual perseverance

Working with complex problem instead of simple solution


Intellectual fair-mindedness

To apply same standards to all view points


Confidence in reason

Belief that reason is the best way to go in decision making


Intellectual courage

face and fairly assess ideas, beliefs and viewpoints in which others have strong negative reactions


Intellectual empathy

Putting yourself in the place of others to understand them


Intellectual autonomy

Thinking for ourselves, rather than uncritically accepting the views of society


benefits to learning logic and arguments

1. it helps you make good decisions
2. it helps you justify your decisions, especially to critics
3. it helps you to evaluate the strength of other people's arguments
4. It helps you become a better writer



the argument that someone wants you to accept eg. Jim is a strong candidate for the role



any reason that supports our conclusion eg. Jim is highly experienced



counter argument against conclusion eg. Jim does not have all the required skills for the job



an objection to the objection eg. Jim does not have all the required skills for this job but Jim is a fast learner



Conclusion guaranteed to be true if the argument is valid and sound



The premises (and evidence offered) support the conclusion, but do not guarantee it



Conclusion is guaranteed to be true if the premises are accurate



Argument is valid
Premises are actually true


about Argument map 7

representing what the arguer is trying to do
ideas at the heart of the argument
filter out what is not important to us
figure out conclusion
Next step
Isolate and give a number to each premise
each premise is a single idea give number



is the process of interpreting the world around you, and finding meaning in what you perceive


7 characteristics of sense making

Ongoing – it’s happening all the time, and our understanding is constantly being updated
Retrospective – we process past experiences and make guesses about the future
Plausible – our understanding is never perfect, but is usually good enough to be believable to us
Images – we try to relate experiences to mental maps and things that we already know
Rationalise – if something is unclear, we often make a judgement to make it clear
People – sense-making occurs in our heads, but it’s often not done alone (e.g., with co-workers)
Doing – sense-making occurs not just through thinking and observing, but doing (e.g., working alongside your manager)


Why should we care about sense-making? 2 -5

Having a realistic understanding of our situation helps us to make good decisions
If I work hard, is my effort likely to be recognised and rewarded?
Should I remain with this organisation?
What kind of work would make me happy?
You are unlikely to benefit from a simplistic worldview that:
Fails to account for new facts and information
Is biased; for example:
Too optimistic (failure to recognise legitimate problems, lack of self-reflection)
Too pessimistic (cynicism, hopelessness, depression, anxiety)


What is evidence-based management?

Evidence-based management (EBM) is the practice of making organizational decisions that incorporates the conscientious use of both scientific and organizational facts combined with the development of professional expertise and ethical judgment

Results of evidence-based practice are improved decision quality through more consistent use of practices that work, and as a result higher financial performance


6 components of evidence-based management

Asking: translating a practical issue or problem into an answerable question
Acquiring: systematically searching for and retrieving the evidence
Appraising: critically judging the trustworthiness and relevance of the evidence
Aggregating: weighing and pulling together the evidence
Applying: incorporating the evidence into the decision-making process
Assessing: evaluating the outcome of the decision taken


Why should we care about multiple perspectives?

To take you beyond personal experience; enhance creativity
Theories of management give us different insights into employees and what motivates them, and methodologies for approaching problems
To avoid tunnel vision (e.g., focusing only the company’s financial bottom line)
To take into account the needs, wants and interests of important stakeholders when designing a solution
To become aware of alternatives, by exposing ourselves to the opinions and suggestions of other people
To gain greater acceptance for a proposed solution (Earley & Lind, 1987)


Scientific Management (Taylorism)
legacy4 and problems4

Pay-for-performance systems
Job / training needs analysis
Workplace R&D, and best practice implementation
Performance benchmarking
Assumptions of rationality
Shifts in performance benchmarks
Simplistic economic view of the relationship between pay, motivation and performance
Micro-focus on line managers


Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) key management activities 5

Planning, organising, command, coordination, control


Administrative principles (Henri Fayol)
14 principles of management

Division of labour, authority, discipline, unified command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interests, fair remuneration, centralisation, hierarchy, order, fairness, job security, initiative, staff morale


Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) legacy3 and problems2

All 7 management activities still have relevance
Management can be taught
Emphasis on all parts of the organisation working together
Division of labour can be rigid
Some of the 14 principles less relevant today (e.g., centralisation and job security)