Murder, serious assault, sexual offences and robbery.
25% of all crime in Scotland.
In 2015, there were 59 murders in Scotland.
Males aged 16-24 are at the highest risk of becoming victims.
All crime that relates to property that is either stolen or damaged.
Includes personal theft, which is when somebody steals an item from somebody else, for example a handbag or vandalism.
Can be digital and this is known as cybercrime; examples are hacking or online piracy.
75% of all crimes in Scotland involve property.
Behaviour that can cause alarm or distress to someone from a different household or to the local community.
Can include loud music, regular noisy parties, threats and harassment and breaches of the peace.
706 people died due to a use of drugs in 2015
The Misuse of Drugs Act classifies different drugs as either category A, B or C depending on how dangerous they are with cocaine a class A and steroids classified as C.
There were 200 deaths related to road traffic in Scotland in 2014.
There are many traffic offences which are considered crimes such as speeding, dangerous driving, drink driving, driving whilst using a mobile, etc.
Impact on Victim - Short Term
Short term effects can include physical injury, a loss of property, loss of identity and loss of time. For example because of a mugging a victim may lose cash, their ID, may be injured in an attack and will have to spend time reporting the incident to the police, cancelling credit cards, etc.
Impact on Offender
Most crimes can be punished with a prison sentence. For example, possession of cannabis, a class B drug, can lead to a 5-year prison sentence.
Criminal records must be disclosed at job interviews meaning that a criminal past may stop a person from getting a job.
Going abroad can also be harder as countries like the USA will not grant those with criminal records a holiday visa.
Additionally banks don’t like to give mortgages to people with a criminal record, making it harder for offenders to buy their own home.
Impact on Economy
It is said that violent crime alone costs the UK economy £124 billion every year.
Police investigations, court procedures and prison expenditure all have to be paid for through taxation.
This is all money that could otherwise be spent on schools, hospitals, roads, etc.
Impact on the Community
Crimes like vandalism make our towns and streets less desirable places to be.
Crimes like fraud, identity theft and traffic offences mean that insurances costs increase for everyone.
Shoplifting and counter-fitting can close businesses to close down. For example it is estimated that online piracy costs the computer games industry millions each year – this will have an impact on places like Dundee where many are employed in the games industry.
Role of Police - Maintain Law & Order
Law and order can be maintained by a visible police presence.
Often known as ‘bobbies on the beat’ police can be seen patrolling the streets of Dundee in an effort to deter crime.
Role of Police - Detect Criminals
Police detectives carry out investigations in order to solve crimes.
Police collect evidence such as CCTV footage to help prosecute criminals in court.
Police in Scotland solved almost 150,000 crimes in 2015.
Role of Police - Prevent Crime
Much of the work of police officers is focused on stopping crime before it ever happens.
Police can often be seen by the side of the road with speed cameras in an effort to stop motorists from speeding.
Role of Police - Protect the Public
Where a crime has been committed, the police will use their power of arrest to detain suspects.
Armed police are often seen at airports like Edinburgh in order to protect the public from terrorism
Policing Styles - Reactive Policing
When the police react to a crime that has already happened. This includes responding to traffic accidents and 999 calls.
Policing Styles - Proactive Policing
This includes efforts to stop or deter crime from happening before it does. This can include CCTV, speed cameras and ‘bobbies on the beat’
Policing Styles - Soft Policing
Soft policing is less about chasing criminals and more about engaging with the community. For example community policing, visiting schools and setting up midnight football leagues.
Policing Styles - Hard Policing
This is used rarely and only in serious circumstances.
It can include deploying riot police, as was the case in the London riots, arming police with tasers and even guns when there is the threat of a terrorist incident.
Police Scotland was formed as a single police force for Scotland in 2013. Before this Scotland had 8 separate police forces, including Tayside Police. Some argue that the combined Police Scotland is more effective whilst others are in favour of a return to separate police forces across the country.
Arguments for Single Police Force
It will improve the service It will save £1.4 billion by 2026 There will be a more clear leadership The police service will be equal across Scotland It will allow for the sharing of ideas
Arguments Against Single Police Force
Concerns about who will be in charge of services in local areas Different areas have different needs – Inverness vs. Dundee The 8 services had a good understanding of their local needs A possible reduction in officers may make fighting crime more difficult.
Licensing Scotland Act 1976
Must be 18 to purchase/consume alcohol. From the age of 16 it is legal to consume some weaker alcoholic drinks in a restaurant with a meal. From the age of 14 it is legal to enter a pub or bar, provided the landlord lets you in. You cannot consume any alcohol at that age. The landlord of a pub can refuse entry to anyone.
Licensing (Scotland) Act 2005
You must have proof of age to buy, shops/pubs must not serve people who are drunk and it is illegal to buy alcohol for under 18’s - £5000 fine and/or 3 months prison.
In 2007-8, there were 40,000 hospital admittances due to alcohol related injuries/illnesses. Scotland has one of the fastest growing rates of liver disease, often causes by excessive alcohol consumption, in the world. This impacts the physical and mental health of many people in Scotland. It has caused families to break down and has led to an increase in violent crime. Studies have shown a link between the rise in the murder rate in Scotland and alcohol. 50% of men and 30% of women are said to exceed the recommended weekly alcohol consumption limit.
Misuse of Drugs Act 1971
It is an offence to possess, supply or intend to supply a controlled drug, or to allow premises to be used for drug taking
Proceeds of Crime Act 2002
The Police can seize assets of convicted drugs dealers.
Anti-Social Behaviour Act 2004
Police can enter and close down premises used for drug-taking or dealing.
Misuse of Drugs Act 2005
Reclassified Cannabis from Class C to Class B and toughened sentences
Psychoactive Substances Act 2016
Makes it an offence to produce, supply or possess psychoactive substances; that is, any substance intended for human consumption that is capable of producing a psychoactive effect, often known as ‘legal highs’. The maximum sentence will be 7 years’ imprisonment
Penalties - Class A Possesion
7 years or unlimited fine or both
Penalties - Class A Supply
Life or Unlimited Fine or both