Flashcards in Crash course: All models + geography Deck (64)
Why does the birth rate fall in later stages of the DTM?
The birth rate gradually falls to match the new social structure
What diseases are common in later stages of the Epidemiologic Transition Model?
In later stages, diseases once thought eradicated reappear as more-developed societies come into easier contact with less-developed regions struggling with the more primitive diseases (like smallpox and the bubonic plague)
What's the leading cause of death in later stages of the ETM?
Diseases associated with old age (heart disease, etc)
When applied as to migration, what does the Gravity Model of Spatial Interaction state?
That larger and closer places attract more migrants than do smaller and further places
According to the Zelinsky Model of Migration Transition, when is the most international migration seen?
The most international migration is seen in stage 2 of the DTM because people become more mobile as industrialization develops
Summarize Ravenstein's Laws of of Migration
Push and pull factors, multiple step migration, better economic opportunities is usually the reason for migration, for every migration stream there's a counter stream, different factors such as gender, age, and socioecomomic level can all play a role in whether someone migrates or not
What does the Von Thunen Model explain and predict?
This model explains and predicts agricultural land use patterns in a theoretical state by varying transportation costs. It predicts that more-intensive rural land use is closer to the marketplace, and more-extensive rural land use is further from the cities marketplace. (these rural land use zones are divided in the model into concentric rings).
What does Weber's Least Cost Theory explain and predict?
It predicts where industry will locate based on cost analysis of transportation, labor, and agglomeration factors. This theory assumes that industry will located based on the desire to minimize production costs and thus maximize profits.
What are some drawbacks of Weber's Least Cost Theory?
Drawbacks include its assumption of an immobile and equal labor force
*Describe Hotelling's Theory of Locational Interdependance
This theory asserts that an industry's locational choices are heavily influenced by the location of their chief competitors and related industries. (In other words, industries do not make isolated decisions on locations without considering where other related industries exist)
Describe Rostow's Modernization Model
It states that the development cycle is initiated by investment in a takeoff advantage, which sparks greater economic gain that eventually diffuses throughout the country's economy. Has different stages like traditional society, preconditions for takeoff, takeoff, drive to maturity, and high mass consumption
What are some drawbacks to Rostow's Modernization Model?
Drawbacks to this model include its not identifying cultural and historic differences in development trajectories because it is based on North American and Western European development histories
What does Borchert's Model of Urban Evolution explain and what are the different stages?
It was created to predict and explain the growth of cities in four phases of transportation history. Stages include (from 1-4): Sail wagon, iron horse, steel rail, and car and air travel
What does Christaller's Central Place Theory explain?
This model explains the patterns of urban places across the map. Christaller used a hexagonal hierarchical pattern of cities that are arranged to their varying locations in relation to the CBD and their functions
What does the Concentric Zone Model explain and what is its main principle?
This model was devised to explain the growth patterns of North American urban spaces. Its main principle is that cities can be viewed from above as a series of concentric rings and as the city grows, new rings are added and old ones change function
What do Bid-rent curves show?
They show the variations in rent different users are willing to pay for land at differnet distances from some peak point of accessibility and visibility in the market (the CBD). (rents usually decrease as it gets further from the CBD)
What generates different bid-rent curves?
Different types of land use (commercial retail, industrial, agriculture, housing) generate different bid-rent curves.
What do bid-rent curves explain?
Bid-rent curves explain the series of concentric rings f land use found in the concentric zone model
Describe Hoyt's Sector Model
It explains North American urban growth patterns in the 1930s in a pattern in which similar land uses and socioeconomic groups clustered in linear sectors radiating outward from a central business district, usually along transportation corridors
Describe Harris's and Ullman;s Multiple-Nuclei Model
It explains the changing growth pattern of urban spaces based on the assumption that growth occurred independently around several major foci/nodes (many of which are barely connected to the CBD)
Describe Vance's Urban Realms Model
It was developed to predict changing urban growth pattern as the automobile became increasingly prevalent and large suburban "realms" emerged. These suburban areas are usually tied to a suburban downtown/ mini CBD and have relative independence from the original CBD
Describe the Latin American City Model (Griffin-Ford Model)
In Latin America, residential quality decreases with distance from the CBD. It also has a zone of maturity, populated with services and a wealthier population; a zone of squatter settlements; and a zone of in situ accretion (a transitional zone that shows signs of a transition to a zone of maturity)
Describe the use of spatial perspective
Geographers look into space and identify, explain, and predict, the human and physical patterns that develop across space over time as well as well as the interconnections among spaces and places
What are the 5 themes of geography?
Location, Human environment interaction, place, and movement
What does location explain?
Location explains where something is on the Earth and the effects that position has on human life
What can only serve as the baseline for latitude?
The equator because it's the only line of latitude that divides the earth into two halves, or hemispheres
What is currently used as the prime meridian and why was it chosen?
Any line of longitude could serve as zero degrees longitude. The prime meridian, which runs through Greenwich, England, was selected when England was a prime naval power.
What is GMT based on?
GMT (Greenwich mean time) is based on the prime meridian
What is cultural ecology?
The study of the aspects and outcomes of human-environment interaction