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Flashcards in Control of Respiration Deck (41)
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1

What are the 3 parts involved in the control of respiration?

Central Controller
Sensors
Effectors

2

Where is the central controller of respiration located?

In the brainstem in the medulla and pons

3

What are the parts of the medullary respiratory center?

Dorsal Respiratory Group
Ventral Respiratory Group

4

What is the role of the medullary respiratory group?

Generates the breathing pattern

5

What is the role of the Dorsal Respiratory Group?

Inspiration

6

What is the role of the Ventral Respiratory Group?

Expiration

7

What are the parts of the pontine respiratory group?

Apneusitic Center
Pneumotaxic Center

8

What is the role of the pontine respiratory group?

Controls the breathing pattern

9

What is the role of the Apneusitic Center?

Excitatory effect on the DRG (increases inspiration)

10

What is the role of the
Pneumotaxic Center?

Inhibitory effect on the DRG (decreases inspiration)

11

What is the role of the central chemoreceptor?

It is sensitive to changes in pH of the CSF as the CSF has a lower buffering capacity than blood.

12

What changes in gas does the central chemoreceptor respond to?

It responds to changes in PCO2 but not PO2

13

How does the central chemoreceptor respond to decreased pH?

It will increase in activity and increase ventilation

14

Where are the peripheral chemoreceptors found?

They are located in the aortic and carotid bodies

15

What changes are the peripheral chemoreceptors responsive to?

Decrease in pH (carotid bodies only)
Increase in PCO2
Decrease in PO2

16

What are the only chemoreceptors that respond to changes in PO2?

Peripheral chemoreceptors

17

Where are pulmonary stretch receptors located?

Within the smooth muscle cells of airways

18

What is the function of pulmonary stretch receptors?

Affect the activity of the inspiratory muscles based on stretch

19

What is the Hering-Breuer Inflation Reflex?

Inflation of the lung inhibits inspiratory muscle activity

20

What is the Hering-Breuer Deflation Reflex?

Deflation of the lung activates inspiratory muscle activity

21

Are the Hering-Breuer Reflexes active in adults?

Not so much

22

Where are the irritant receptors located?

Between airway epithelial cells

23

What is the role of irritant receptors?

They are stimulated by things like dust and smoke and are activated through the vagus nerve resulting in bronchoconstriction and hyperpnea

24

What are J receptors?

They are "juxtacapillary" receptors found in alveolar walls near capillaries that can trigger rapid shallow breathing

25

What are bronchial C fibers?

They respond to chemicals injected into bronchial circulation with rapid shallow breathing, bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion

26

What happens to ventilation as PCO2 increases?

It will increase

27

What happens to ventilation at a given PCO2 with lower PO2?

Ventilation will be higher than at a normal PO2

28

How will metabolic acidosis affect the response to CO2?

It will increase the response to CO2 by making the curve steeper

29

What is the most important stimulus for ventilation?

Arterial PCO2

30

At normal PCO2, how does the body respond to decreasing PO2?

PO2 can be reduced to 50 mmHg with normal PCO2 levels before ventilation will be induced. Therefore hypoxic stimulation plays only a small role in the increase in ventilation in healthy people.

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