Flashcards in Conservatism Deck (11)
Conservative views on human nature
- Views human nature negatively and are keen to highlight imperfections
- Hobbes and Burke are both 'cynical' and 'sceptical' of human nature (traditional conservatism)
- One nation conservatives like Oakeshott also believed in human imperfection
Conservative views on society
- Hobbes believed society was 'nasty, brutish and short'.
- Burke believed that communities (such as families) are essential to society, belief in hierarchy and the idea of a 'natural ruling class'. However, higher people in the hierarchy have a duty of care for the people below them. (noblesse oblige)
Conservative views on the state
- Hobbes believed that the state's main function is to maintain security, safety and stability.
- Burke believed in a aristocratic/ruling class structure
Conservative views on the economy
- All strands of Conservatism support capitalism
- New Right thinkers such as Ayn Rand believed in laissez faire economics and Nozick believed in a minimalist state.
What is pragmatism?
- Pragmatism rejects ideology and theory in favour of decisions made on the basis of practical experience and 'what works'.
Traditional and one nation views on pragmatism
- Traditional conservatives such as Burke are in favour of cautious pragmatism, which enables a society to adapt to changing circumstances by introducing moderate reforms.
- One Nation conservatives adopt a pragmatic 'middle way' economic policy that combines market competition with government regulation.
What is paternalism?
- Where the most advantaged (in terms of financial rewards or status) have the greatest social responsibilities.
- E.g managers are paid more than their workers but they are obliged to protect the jobs and economic well being of the workforce.
What is Libertarianism?
- Also known as neo-liberalism
- It advocates: individual liberty, maximum economic freedom and minimal government or state regulation
- Rejects the idea of paternalism
- Key libertarian thinkers include: Friedrich von Hayek, Ayn Rand and Robert Nozick.
What is the national aristocracy?
- Traditional Conservatism idea
- These are the people with the ability, experience and inclination to lead the nation wisely in the interest of the whole society.
- Burke thought this small governing elite would be largely drawn from the hereditary aristocracy.
One Nation conservatism
- Used Keynesian economics
- Reforms such as housing and voting rights to create an alliance between the ruling and working class and to help the poorest in society.
- Big belief in paternalism and the idea that the privileged have a duty to look after the poor