Consciousness and Brain Activity Flashcards Preview

Medicine, Year 1 Block 6 (Psychological Medicine) > Consciousness and Brain Activity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Consciousness and Brain Activity Deck (25)
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1

What is the medical definition of consciousness?

State of awareness and responsiveness to one's surroundings

2

What is the "lowest" level of consciousness?

Brain death

3

Describe Locked in Syndrome

Patient has awareness, sleep-wake cycles, meaningful behaviour but is isolated due to facial / muscle paralysis

4

Describe a state of normal loss of consciousness

Sleeping

5

Describe three states of abnormal loss of consciousness

Coma
Anaesthesia
Vegetative State

6

What is the most common cause of serious loss of consciousness worldwide?

Cerebral malaria

7

Aside from Cerebral Malaria, give 4 other causes of losing consciousness

Stroke
Cardiovascular
Diabetes
Drug-induced
Epilepsy
Head Injury
Dementia

8

What is AVPU?

A way of assessing patient's responsiveness

A: Patient is awake
V: Patient responds to voice
P: Patient responds to pain
U: Patient unresponsivess

9

A fully conscious patient has a GCS of..?

15 (maximum)

10

A person in a deep coma has a GCS of..?

3 (minimum)

11

What are the three variables measured for the Glasgow Coma Scale?

Best Eye Response (E)
Best Verbal Response (V)
Best Motor Response (M)

12

To be in a coma, patient would have a GCS of..?

8 or less

13

A GCS of 9 - 11 is..?

Moderately severe injury

14

A GCS greater than or equal to 12 is..?

Minor injury

15

What is the criteria for brain stem death?

Irreversible loss of capacity for consciousness, to breathe, and loss of brain-stem function

16

Give examples of 5 brainstem reflexes

- Pupil response
- Corneal reflex
- Vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR)
- Cough / gag reflex
- Respiratory effort

17

What is the main system in the brain which regulates consciousness?

Reticular Activating System

18

What is the Reticular Formation?

A collection of nuclei belonging to the Reticular Activating System, found in the mid-brain. Diffuse, no clear boundaries

19

What are the four principle sets of nuclei in the Reticular Activating System?

Locus Coeruleus
Raphe Nuclei
Ventral Tegmental Area
Cholinergic Nuclei

20

What are the Neurotransmitters used in each of the Nuclei of the RAS?

Locus Coeruleus: NA
Raphe Nuclei: 5-HT
Ventral Tegmental Area: DA
Cholinergic Nuclei: ACh

21

What are the two main types of sleep?

Synchronised / NREM / Non-REM
Desynchronised / REM

22

The sleep-wake cycle is controlled by what fibres in the RAS?

Cholinergic Nuclei

23

Oscillations in the EEG are generated by interactions between which 3 neurones?

- Thalamocortical
- Reticular
- Corticothalamic

24

During wakefulness, what sort of oscillatory waves are there?

Alpha and beta waves

25

How long is the body clock's day?

24.5 - 25.5 hrs