What are the three main types of information provided in a CBC?
RBC, WBC, and Platelet counts
What is HGB?
What is HCT?
Hematocrit, the portion of total blood volume made of RBC. Determines anemia.
What is MCV?
Mean Corpuscular Volume, the size of the RBC
What is RDW?
The Red blood cell Distribution Width, or the range of widths of the RBCs present. Normally very small, but larger values signify abnormal findings.
What are RET# and RET%?
The number or proportion of circulating reticulocytes (nascent RBC) in the blood. Diversions from normal values indicate possible causes of anemia (overproduction/underproduction of RBC).
What is PLT?
The Platelet Count
What is MPV?
Mean Platelet Volume
What are the normal ranges of WBC, RBC, HGB, HCT, and MCV for males?
WBC = 4-11, RBC = 4.7-6, HGB = 14-18 g/dL, HCT = 39-50%, MCV = 80-100
What are the normal ranges of WBC, RBC, HGB, HCT, and MCV for females?
WBC = 4-11, RBC = 4.1-5.6, HGB = 12-16 g/dL, HCT = 35-46%, MCV = 80-100
What parameter describes microcytic vs macrocytic?
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) Below 80 = microcytic, and above 100 = macrocytic.
What is the normal size, nucleation, cytoplasmic color, and central area description of a red blood cell?
6.7-7.7 microns in width, no nuclei, eosinophilic (red) cytoplasm, central area of pallor = 1/3 of diameter
What causes abnormal RBC counts?
Decreased RBC = Anemia, due to blood loss, peripheral destruction of RBC, or insufficient erythropoiesis in the marrow. Increased RBC = Erythrocytosis/Polycythemia, due to reactive changes (smoking, renal cell carcinoma), thalasemia, or primary marrow neoplasm.
What causes abnormal HGB counts?
Hemoglobin is determined spectrophotometrically. Causes are the same as RBC anomalies: Decreased HGB = Anemia, due to blood loss, peripheral destruction of HGB, or insufficient erythropoiesis in the marrow. Increased HGB = Erythrocytosis/Polycythemia, due to reactive changes (smoking, renal cell carcinoma), thalasemia, or primary marrow neoplasm.
How is HCT determined and what causes abnormal values?
Hematocrit is the total volume of RBC in whole blood. It is obtained directly after centrifugation or by calculation (HCT = RBCxMCV or roughly HCT = 3xHGB) Decreases caused by anemia or fluid overload. Increases caused by erythrocytosis/polycythemia or dehydration.
How is MCV calculated and what do abnormal values indicate?
The Mean Corpuscular Volume (RBC size) is determined by the Coulter principle or MCV = HCT/RBC. Abnormally low values indicate microcytosis (iron deficiency anemia or thalassemia). Abnormally high values indicate macrocytosis (megaloblastic anemia).
What are three classes of anemia?
Microcytic (MCV 100)
What is MCH?
The mean quantity of hemoglobin in an RBC
How is MCH calculated and what do abnormal values indicate?
MCH parallels the MCV (MCV goes up, MCH goes up). MCH = HGB/RBC. Abnormally low MCH mean hypo chromatic, iron deficiency anemia. Abnormally high MCH means hyper chromatic, megaloblastic anemia.
How is MCHC different from MCH and what do abnormal levels indicate?
Mean Concentration of Hemoglobin is a concentration of hemoglobin, whereas MCH is a quantity of hemoglobin. MCHC is decreased in moderate to severe microcytic anemia. MCHC is increased in hereditary spherocytosis.
What conditions cause increases in RDW?
RDW is increased in anemia and diseases with RBC destruction (i.e. schistocytosis). The wider the red cell histogram, the larger the RDW.
What is the size, staining color, granulation, and nuclear arrangement of neutrophils?
Diameter = 9-15 um, cytoplasm stains slightly red (slightly acidophilic), many fine granules, 2-5 nuclear segments/lobes.
What are abnormal levels of neutrophils termed?
Neutropenia and neutrophilia
What is the size, color, and nuclear arrangement of eosinophils?
Diameter = 12-17 um, numerous large, round, and orange-red granules (acidophilic), 1-4 nuclear lobes (often 2)
What are the primary cytokines that stimulate eosinophils?
IL-5, IL-3 and GM-CSF
What is the size, color, and nuclear arrangement of basophils?
Diameter = 12 um, numerous large, round, purple-black cytoplasmic granules, usually have two nuclear lobes but are often covered by granules.
What is the size, color, nuclear arrangement, and staining pattern of the monocyte?
Diameter = 15-30 um, abundant cytoplasm with many fine, azurophilic granules, large and eccentric nucleus (round, kidney/horseshoe, or lobulated), slightly grey/blue staining.
What is the size, color, and nuclear arrangement of lymphocytes?
Diameter = 7-12 um, slight bluish staining, nucleus is round or slightly indented. Minimal cytoplasm unless they are activated.
Iron deficiency anemia