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61

EPIDEMIOLOGY

the study of health related trends in populations for the purposes of disease prevention, health maintenance and health protection

62

Describe "INTERVIEW" (community assessment)

Strengths?
Limitations?

DIRECT DISCUSSION WITH COMMUNITY MEMBERS FOR THE PURPOSE OF OBTAINING IDEAS AND OPINIONSN FROM KEY INFORMANTS

STRENGTHS--- minimal cost---reading/writing of participants not required

LIMITATIONS---built in bias---meeting time & place

63

Define "Community'

group of people and institutions that share geographic, civic and/or social parameters

64

Types of services covered by Medicaid

*In and Out Patient care

*Lab | Radiology

*Home health services

*Vaccines

**Family Planning

*Pregnancy care

*<21 - Early and periodic screening, diagnosis and treatment

65

When evaluating the "PEOPLE" component of the community assessment...what are the "5" things that evaluated?

1) Demographic (distribution, mobility, density)

2) Social (marital status, education, crime rate, occupation, recreation)

3) Biological (health/disease status, race, age, gender

4) Cultural (Language, religion, spirituality, values)

5) Vital Stats (birth/death rate)

66

define "ENDEMIC"

Constant prescence of a disease or infectious agent within a given area (or group) without importation from outside

67

Describe the Epidemiological Process (7)

1) Assessment --

2) Formulate theory using gathered information

3)Narrow down possibilities by gathering more info

4) Make a plan

5) Put plan in action

6) Evaluate plan to determine level of success

7) Report and Follow up

68

SECONDARY PREVENTION deals with the ________ population

AT RISK

69

Determinants of Health

factors that influence the clients health
*nutrition
*stress
*education
*education
*environment
*finances

70

Systems thinking

studies how an individual, or unit, interacts with other organizations/systems.
**Useful in examining cause and effect

71

Define "RISK"

Probability or likelihood that a disease or illness will occur in a group of people who presently do not have the problem

72

_______________ is responsible for administration of the Medicaid program

State health agency

73

What is Epidemiology used for...?

1) used to provide interventions for targeted groups

2) Numerical info about the impact of disease and death of populations

3) it provides a broad understanding of the spread, transmission, and incidence of disease and injury

74

(BARRIERS) to implementing community health programs (7)

1) Poor assessment
2) Incomplete data
3) Not including community partners
4) Poor communication
5) Poor resources
6) Lack of planning
7) Poor Leadership



75

Define "Epidemic"

An outbreak that occurs when there is an increased incidence of a disease beyond that which is normally found in the population

76

Mortality rates provide information about __________

Cause of death

77

Population-based practice. the synthesis of nursing and public health within the context of preventing disease and disability and promoting and protecting the health of the entire community

Public Health nursing

78

_________ is the physical, infectious, or chemical factor that causes a disease

THE AGENT
(Epidemiological triangle)

79

___________ is the living being that an agent or the environment influences.

THE HOST
(Epidemiological triangle)

80

__________________ is the setting or surrounding that sustains the host

THE ENVIRONMENT
(EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIANGLE)

81

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIANGLE

Name ---"2" PHYSICAL AGENTS
"2" CHEMICAL AGENTS
"2" INFECTIOUS AGENTS

"2" PHYSICAL AGENTS:
----noise
----temperature

"2" CHEMICAL AGENTS
---drugs
---toxins

"2" INFECTIOUS AGENTS
---viruses
---bacteria

82

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIANGLE

(7) Types of Susceptible Host(s):

"O GAG PIE"

O-ccupation

G-ender
A-ge
G-enetics

P-hysiological state
I-mmunological status
E-thnicity

83

Difference between "INCIDENCE" and "PREVALENCE"

INCIDENCE is the # of NEW CASES and PREVALENCE involves the # of EXISTING CASES

84

Probability or likelihood that a disease or illness will occur in a group of people who presently DO NOT have the problem

RISK

85

Examples of "Primary Prevention"

1) nutrition education

2) family planning / sex education

3) smoking cessation

4) safety education (seat belts, helmets)