Flashcards in COMMUNITY---Week # 1 Deck (85)
Healthy People 2020 Initiatives (5)
1) Establish Measurable Objectives
2) Consult with health care expects locally/nationally to collect data
3) National Health goals are derived from scientific data and trends collected during the prior decade
4) Guides Nurses in developing health promotion strategies to improve individual / community health
5) Measure for quality of health--helps nurses develop health promotion strategies
PRIMARY PREVENTION deals with the ________ population
Important facts about DORTHEA DIX
* 1st generation of mental asylums
What does the (WHO) World Health Organization do?
Provides daily information regarding the occurrence of internationally important diseases.
Establishes world standards for antibiotics / vaccines
The "3rd" major change to healthcare in the 21st century is "Increased use of technology". What are the three main types of technology?
1) Medical devices
2) Health Information Tech (HIT)
Describe the "shift of care" (1900-1999)
1910-- (Home care focused) 90% of nursing care provided in patients home (by their family with visits from doctor/nurse
1950--(Hospital care focused) Nursing students were utilized as hospital staff
1980 -- (Home care focused) D/C from hospitals occurred faster d/t increased cost of hospitalization using DRG's (Diagnostic Related Grouping)
**care was transferred to community nurses
"3" components that make up the Epidemiological Triangle
1) AGENT---physical, infectious or chemical factor that causes the disease
2) HOST---the living being that an agent or environment influences
3) ENVIRONMENT---the setting/surrounding that sustains the host
principles of Epidemiology in practice (6)
2) Planning and Interventions
3) Health Promotion
Equation for PREVALENCE
Number of EXISTING CASES in the population at a specific time divided by POPULATION TOTAL x 1,000 = _______ per 1,000
describes the health status of a community and serve as targets for the improvement of a community's health.
Important Facts about CLARA BARTON
* Founded American Red Cross (1881)
* Civil War -care for soldiers
(STRATEGIES) to implementing community health programs (7)
2) Accurate interpretation of data
3) Collaboration with community partners
4) Effective communication
5) Sufficient resources
6) logical planning
7) skilled leadership
The primary measurement used to describe either the occurrence or the existence of a specific state of health or illness
What are the "three" major changes to Health care in the 21st century?
1) Development of patient / client-centered care
2) Patients have personal responsibility for their health
3) Increased use of technology
Define "ATTACK RATE"
Number of people exposed to a specific agent who develop the disease divided by total number of people exposed
What is Nonmaleficence?
*Not willfully harming a patient
*no harm done when applying the standards of care
What are the preventative services for Health promotion and disease prevention (5)
1) Education and counseling
3) Preventative Medications
4) Lifestyle changes
5) Actions to prevent a potential disease or disability
What is Beneficence?
*being proactive in promoting the clients best interest
*maximize possible benefits
*minimize possible harm
Important fact about FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE
* Promotes self care / preventative care
* Environmental theory
* Crimean War (1854)-treated soldiers
* 1st statistician (Reviewing data)
What are the principles guiding community health nursing (5)
3) evidence base practice
5) Professional Collaboration/communication
what are the methods of data collection for community assessment? (5)
1) WINDSHIELD SURVEY
4) EXISTING DATA
5) CONSTRUCTED SURVEYS
The "1st" major change to healthcare in the 21st century is "DEVELOPMENT OF PT/CLIENT CENTERED CARE"...What are the "5" things we (nurses) take into consideration when caring for our patient?
2) Personal Preferences
What is "GLOBAL HEALTH"
Health issues and concerns that transcend national boundaries and may best be addressed by cooperative actions and solutions.
People may also define health differently based on their culture, role in life or even what is possible in their environment.
Physical, mental and social wellbeing and not just the absence of disease.
When evaluating the "PLACES" component of the community assessment...what are the "5" things that evaluated?
1) PHYSICAL (geography, housing)
2) ENVIRONMENTAL (Geography, climate, pollutants)
3) SOCIAL SYSTEMS (Religious, education, transportation, etc)
4) HUMAN SERVICES (# of hospitals, police stations, libraries)
5) POWER SYSTEM (who makes the decisions/laws)
Important facts about LILLIAN WALD
* 1st Public Health Nurse
* Socioeconomic & educational component to health
Equation for INFANT MORTALITY RATE
Number of infant deaths before 1 year of age in a year divided by NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS in the same year x 1,000 = ________ per 1,000
What are the patient / client care "benefits" from INCREASED USE OF TECHNOLOGY ? (6)
1) Improved Coordination
2) Evidence based
3) Eliminate paperwork
4) Reduce error
5) expanded access
6) decreased cost
What is fidelity?
*honouring commitments to clients
Describe "EXISTING DATA" (community assessment)
USE OF EXISTING DATA TO ASSESS PROBLEMS
STRENGTH---database of prior concerns---ability to trend health issues over time
LIMITATIONS---possibility that data might not represent current situation