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Flashcards in Communication Disorders Deck (21)
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1

Explain Aphasia

Acquired neurological impairment of processing for receptive and/or expressive language

typically a result of TI, CVA, head trauma, Tumor or infection

2

T or F: 95% of Right-handed persons and 66% of left-handed persons are left hemisphere dominant for language

True

3

Describe the Prognosis for Aphasia

Depended on the individual patient, location, and extent of the lesion.

Typically the more sudden the onset of damage (acute CVA), the higher extent of aphasia can be expected

These are often associated with poor Px: preservation of speech, severe auditory comprehension impairments, unreliable yes/no answers, and the use of empty speech w/o recognition of impairments

4

Fluent aphasia typically involves what structures?

Involves Temporal lobe, Wernicke’s area or regions of parietal lobe

5

Characteristics of Fluent Aphasia

-Word output and speech production are functional

- Prosody is acceptable, but empty speech/jargon

-Speech lacks any substance, use of paraphasias

-Use of neologisms (substitution within a word that is so severe it makes the word unrecognizable)

6

Non-fluent Aphasia frequently involves what structures?

Frontal lobe (anterior speech center) of the dominant hemisphere is affected

7

Characteristics of Non-Fluent Aphasia

- Poor word output and dysprosium speech (impairment in the rhythm and inflection of speech)

- Poor articulation and increased effort for speech

-COntent is present, but impaired syntactical words

8

What are the types of Fluent Aphasia?

1. Wernicke’s Aphasia

2. Conduction Aphasia

9

Where is the lesion in Wernicke’s Aphasia

Lesion in the posterior region of superior Temporal gyrus

10

Wernicke’s Aphasia characteristics

- Known as receptive aphasia

- Comprehension (reading/auditory) impaired

- Good articulation, use of paraphasias

-Impaired writing

-Poor naming ability

-Motor impairment not typical due to the distance from Wernicke’s area to motor cortex

11

Where is the lesion in Conduction Aphasia

Supramarginal gyrus, arcuate fasciculus

12

Characteristics of Conduction Aphasia

- severe impairment with relation
- intact fluency, good comprehension
- speech interrupted by word finding difficulties
-reading intact, writing impaired

13

What are the types of Non-fluent Aphasia

Broca’s Aphasia and Global Aphasia

14

What is a Broca’s lesion located?

3rd convolution of frontal lobe

15

Characteristics of Broca’s Lesion?

-Also known as expressive aphasia

-Most common form of aphasia

- intact auditory and reading comprehension

-Impaired repetition and naming skills

-frustration with language skill errors

-Paraphasias are common

- Motor impairment typical due to proximity of Broca’s area to the motor cortex

16

Where is the lesion of Global Aphasia located?

Frontal, temporal, parietal lobes

17

Charateristics of Global Aphasia

- Comprehension (reading/auditory) is severely impaired

-Impaired naming, writing, repetition skills

-May involuntarily verbalize, usually without correct context

-May use nonverbal skills for communication

18

What is verbal apraxia?

Non-dysarthric and non-Aphasic impairment of prosody and articulation of speech

19

Characteristics of Verbal Apraxia

- Verbal expression impaired secondary to deficits in motor planning

-pt is unable to initiate learned movement (articulation of speech) even though they understand the task

20

Where is the lesion located in verbal aphasia ?

Left frontal lobe adjacent to Broca’s area

21

Describe dysarthria

Motor disorder of speech that is caused by an UMN lesion that affects the muscles that are used to articulate words and sounds

*slurred speech and may also be an effect on respiratory or phonatory systems due to weakness