What are some colorectal surgical specialties?
Inflammatory bowel disease
Functional bowel problems
Pelvic floor disorders
Benign (DD, piles, fissures, fistulas)
Advanced pelvic malignancies
Minimally invasive techniques
What are examples of minimally invasive colorectal surgery techniques?
What are functions of the colon and rectum?
Water and electrolyte abruption
Production and absorption of vitamins (K and B)
Storage of faeces (rectum)
Hosts the gut microbiota (role in immune function and disease)
What structures are derived from the foregut?
What structures are derived from the midgut?
Proximal 2/3 of transverse colon
What structures are derived from the hindgut?
Distal 1/3 of transverse colon
What is continence?
When an individual has control of their bladder and bowel
What number of most common cancer is colorectal cancer?
4th most common cancer
Over the last decade, is the incidence of colorectal cancer increasing or decreasing?
What is screening?
Presumptive identification of unrecognised disease in an apparently healthy, asymptomatic population by means of tests, examination or other procedure that can be applied rapidly and easily to the target population
How are patients screened for colorectal cancer in Scotland?
Quantitative faecal immunochemical test (qFIT)
What is the adenoma-carcinoma sequence?
1) Normal colon
2) Mucosa at risk
What are presenting symptoms of colorectal cancer?
Change in bowel habits (diarrhoea, constipation)
How many people experience rectal bleeding in their lifetime?
1 in 4
What investigations are done for colorectal cancer?
Colonoscopy with or without biopsies (gold standard)
Radiological imaging (CT colonoscopy, plain CT abdomen/pelvic contrast)
Staging CT if confirmed colorectal cancer (CT chest)
Pre-op MRI in confirmed rectal cancer
Where are most colorectal tumours located?
1) Proximal colon
2) Distal colon
What should be remembered about colon and rectal cancer?
They are treated as 2 separate entities
What is the pre-op management of colorectal cancer?
Anaesthetic assessment, stoma nurse appointment
MRI important in rectal cancer
Why is an MRI important before surgery in rectal cancer?
Could dictate if neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both required following surgery
What are the basic surgery principles of rectal cancer?
Rectum surrounded by fatty envelope caled the mesorectum (contains all drianing lymph nodes)
To reduce local recurrence rate the rectum and surrounding mesorectum has to be excised
If mesorectal fascia is involved, surgery will be pointless unless tumour can be downsized and get clear circumferential resection margins (CRM)
What fatty stucture surrounds the rectum?
What does the mesorectum contain?
All draining lymph nodes of the rectum
Why is a pre-operative MRI given for rectal cancer?
Best imaging modality for looking at circumferential resection margin (CRM)
What is the treatment for colorectal cancer?
Restoration intestinal continuity
Faecal diversion (stoma)
Preservation of function
Palliative if advanced metastatic disease
What is surgery for colorectal cancer guided by?
What are different kinds of colectomy?
What are some bowel anastomosis principles?
Clean surgical site
Acceptable systemic state
What are the different kinds of stoma?
What is the location of ileostoma?
Right iliac fossa
What is the location of colostomy?
Left iliac fossa