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Flashcards in Colon and Liver Deck (39)
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1

Treatment for hepatic encephalopathy

Lactulose: prevents ammonia absorption by stimulating NH4+ formation
Neomycin: kills bacteria that produce ammonia in GI tract

2

Medicine given to treat bleeding esophageal varices.

Octreotide: vasoconstrictor to prevent bleeding

3

Way to classify liver cirrhosis.

Childs Classification
-based on ascites, nutrition, albumin, bilirubin, and encephalopathy

4

Dx mode of choice for cirrhosis

Liver biopsy

5

Most sensitive and specific test for colon cancer

Colonoscopy

6

Riskiest type of colonic polyp

Villous type
(tubular lesions don't turn into cancer as often)

7

What is FAP?

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: autosomal dominant condition with lots of polyps in the colon and sometimes duodenum.
Colon cancer is 100% in 4th decade, colectomy recommended

8

What is Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome?

Hamartomas scattered throughout the GI tract, pigmented spots seen on the lips.

9

What are the Lynch Syndromes?

Hereditary Nonpolyposis CRC
Lynch 1: only one site
Lynch 2: multiple sites with other types of cancers

10

Test of choice for diverticulosis

Barium Enema

11

Test of choice for diverticulitis

CT scan
(a barium enema would increase pressure too much and risk perforation)

12

What is Ogilvie Syndrome

Symptoms of a bowel obstruction without actual mechanical obstruction. Usually post trauma, surgery or some drug use.

13

Treatment for pseudomembranous colitis.

Also called C. diff colitis, stop antibiotic and give metronidazole

14

Treatment for hepatorenal failure and cirrhosis

Liver Transplant

15

Treatment for Wilsons Disease

D-penicillamine

16

Primary organ affected by hemochromatosis.

Liver
-cirrhosis is a common complication
(autosomal recessive disease)

17

Requirement for diagnosis of hemochromatosis

Liver Biopsy to determine hepatic cellular iron concentration

18

Board buzz word for hemochromatosis

Bronze Diabetic
-iron deposits in the pancreas inhibiting insulin release causing diabetes
-iron deposits in the skin causing a hyper-pigmentation appearance

19

Treatment for hemochromatosis

Repeated phlebotomies

20

Most common population to get hepatocellular adenomas and why?

Women age 15-40 because of oral contraceptive use

21

Most common benign tumor of the liver and which population most commonly gets them?

Cavernous Hemangioma
-vascular tumor in the liver vessels
-oral contraceptive use causes them in menstruating women

22

Two types of hepatocellular carcinoma and which is associated with Hep B and Hep C and cirrhosis?

Nonfibrolamellar: associated with cirrhosis and viruses
Fibrolamellar: not associated (better outcome because usually resectable)

23

Biggest risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirrhosis: especially due to Hep B, Hep C, or alcohol

24

What is required for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma?

Liver Biopsy

25

Defect in Gilbert Syndrome

Autosomal dominant deficiency of diphosphate glucoronyl transferase. Elevation of unconjugated bilirubin

26

Cause of hydatid cyst liver disease

Echinococcus granulosus

27

Most common cause of pyogenic liver abscesses

Biliary duct obstruction, causes backup of bile flow allowing bacterial proliferation

28

Main cause and prominent population to get amebic liver abscesses

Homosexual men, due to fecal oral route
Caused by Entamoeba histolytica

29

What is Budd Chiari Syndrome?

Liver disease occludes hepatic venous flow causing portal congestion leading to ascites, RUQ pain, vatical bleeding, jaundice.

30

When does jaundice clinically present?

When bilirubin levels are above 2mg/dl.