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Flashcards in Cognitive behavioural therapy Deck (6)
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Underlying Theory

- Amalgam of behavioural and cognitive interventions.- Behavioural interventions aim to decrease maladaptive behaviours and increase adaptive ones by modifying their consequences, resulting in new learning.- Cognitive interventions aim to modify maladaptive cognitions, self statements or beliefs.- Basic premise that maladaptive cognitions contribute to maintenance of emotional distress and behavioural problems.- Beck's model posits that maladaptive cognitions include general beliefs or schemas about world, future or self.- Consideration to specific and automatic thoughts in particular situations.- Therapeutic strategies to change maladaptive cognitions lead to changes in emotional distress and problem behaviour.


Techniques and Strategies

- To identify factors that cause, contribute to or exacerbate a particular problem- Consider consequences of a behaviours: - the stimuli that are eliciting cognition, emotional and behavioural conditional responses - cognitions that are contributing to emotions and behaviours - effects of environmental and cultural contextsCan be carried out in several different forms:- Individual therapy- Group therapy- Self help book- Computer program



- Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)- Panic disorder- Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)- Eating disorders- Substance abuse


Evidence Base

- Effective for cannabis and nicotine dependence but less effective for opoid or alcohol dependence- When treating schizophrenia and psychotic disorder, CBT associated with positive outcomes, but lesser efficacy than other treatments - Strong and weak evidence for depression could be result of publication bias (Cujipers et al, 2010)- CBT for bipolar disorder - efficacy small to medium in short term comparison to TAU- Limited evidence for superiority of CBT over pharmacological interventions for depression and bi-polar- Large effect sizes for anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder- Medium effect sizes for social anxiety and PTSD- Large effect sizes for treatment of anger or aggression (Saini, 2009)


Strengths of CBT

- Focuses on human thought. Human cognitive abilities responsible for accomplishments and therefore problems- Cognitive theories lend themselves to testing. When experimental studies are manipulated into adopting unpleasant assumptions or thought, they become more anxious and depression (Rumm & Litvak, 1969)- Many people with psychological disorders have been found to display maladaptive assumptions and thoughts (Beck et al. 1983)


Limitations of CBT

- Precise role of cognitive functions and processes are yet to be determined- Cognitive model narrow in scope - broader issues need to be addressed- Ethical issues in changing cognitions forcefully