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Approaches To Psychology (Edexcel A Level) > Cognitive > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cognitive Deck (164)
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1

Who made the Multistore Model of Memory?

Atkinson + Schiffrin

2

When was the MSM Created?

1968

3

What was each part of the Multistore Model of Memory?

Sensory Register
Short Term Memory
Long Term Memory

4

What does Each Part of the MSM Encode?

Sensory Register: All 5 Senses
STM: Mainly Acoustic
LTM: Semantic

5

What is the Storage Capacity for Each Part of the MSM?

Sensory Register: All Sensory Experience

STM: 7 Items (+/-2)

LTM: Unlimited

6

How does Retrieval Occur during Each Part of the MSM?

Sensory Register: Scanning

STM: Sequential Scan

LTM: Semantic/ Temporal Search

7

How does Forgetting Occur during Each Part of the MSM?

Sensory Register: Lack of Attention (Decay)

STM: FIFO

LTM: Lack of Rehearsal

8

What Evidence supports the MSM?

Henry Molaison:
Brain Surgery damaged his LTM, but his STM is still intact - Proves they're Separate

Clive Wearing:
Encaphalitis - Unable to transfer STM to LTM - Proves they're Separate

Glanzer + Cunitz (Primary + Recency Effect):
First words are Remembered due to LTM, Last Words are Remembered due to STM. - Proves they're Separate

9

What Evidence challenges the MSM?

HM:
Couldn't make long term memories, but could learn new skills -> challenges that STM is just 1 store

CW:
Couldn't remember LT memories, but could play the piano + conduct an orchestra -> challenges that STM is just 1 store

Dual Tasks:
Better at remembering 2 of the same type than 2 different ->Challenges that STM has a fixed capacity.

10

What are some Issues + Debates for the Multistore Model of Memory?

Brain damaged patients aren't generalisable to all society

Brain Damaged Patients are meant to be Anonymysed

Reductionist: The MSM underplays the connection between the Sensory Register, STM + LTM - too Simplistic

11

What is Episodic Memory?

Stored info about life Experiences + Events

Sometimes called Autobiographical Memory; Similar to a Mental Diary

e.g. Receiving your GCSEs

12

What is Semantic Memory?

Words, Facts, Rules, Meaning + Concepts are stored as Knowledge

Similar to a Mental Encyclopaedia

e.g. Counting in French, Knowing Paris is the Capital of France

13

How is Episodic Memory Encoded and Stored?

Experiences and Events are encoded and stored with Temporal/Spatial Referencing (when + where they were learnt)

e.g. You know you got your GCSEs on a morning of Aug 2015, in the canteen

14

How is Semantic Memory Encoded and Stored?

Facts are NOT encoded with temporal/spatial referencing

e.g. You don’t remember where or when you learnt that Paris is the Capital of France

15

How is Episodic Memory Retrieved?

When being retrieved, memories may be tempered with

e.g. Because you were happy with your results, you forgot how nervous you were

16

How is Semantic Memory Retrieved?

The facts retrieved are the exact same as when they were encoded

e.g. You’ll always say that Paris is the Capital of France

17

What Evidence supports Episodic and Semantic Memory as a theory of memory?

Ostergaard:
After suffering an anoxic episode, a 10 year old boy with brain damage suffered impairment to his episodic + semantic memory.
However, he still made educational progress and was able to store info in his semantic memory.
This proves the systems are independent


KC:
Motorbike accident - he couldn’t form or recall personal life events. However, he could recall facts.
Proves the systems are independent, and they could be held in different parts of the brain

Brain Damaged Patients:
Research from brain damaged patients shows that damage to the medial temporal or prefrontal lobe caused damage to semantic memory but not episodic
Proves the systems are independent, and they could be held in different parts of the brain

18

What Evidence challenges Episodic and Semantic Memory as a theory of memory?

HM + CW:
Their episodic memories were damaged, but they were both still able to perform tasks like play the piano and recall new skills
This suggests that there may be a further store for already developed skills.

Squire and Zola:
They suggested that the medial temporal lobe is used for both semantic + episodic memories
This challenges the idea that the semantic + episodic memory work separately

19

What are the Issues and Debates surrounding Episodic and Semantic Memory as a theory of memory?

Reductionist:
Dividing the LTM into different stores suggests that they never overlap, when in fact they are easily able to work together.

Issues +; Debates:
Each case study of a brain damaged patient is unique, and you can’t really generalise their result to a wider population.

20

Who made the Working Memory Model, and when?

Made By: Baddeley + Hitch

When: 1974

21

What does the Working Memory Model consist of?

Central Executive
Phonological Loop
Visuospatial Sketchpad

22

What does Central Executive do?

Described as a Homonculus (little man)

Supervises the system and oversees the 2 slave systems
Controls and/or Divides the amount of attention shared between the 2 systems
Modality free - can deal with any type of sensory info
Has a limited capacity

23

What does the Phonological Loop do?

Deals with the temporary store of verbal information.

It also involves rehearsing verbal information, allowing it to be held for a few seconds longer. It has evolved in to allow us to learn language.

24

What does the Phonological Loop consist of?

Articulatory Rehearsal System
Phonological Store

25

What is the Articuatory Rehearsal System?

Known as the Inner Voice

Explains the Word Length Effect- shorter words w/ less syllables are recalled more successfully than longer words. The longer the word, the more capacity is used up, and forgetting is more likely.

26

What is the Phonological Store?

Known as the Inner Ear

Holds a limited amount of verbal info for a few seconds, but can be extended if info is refreshed using the articulatory rehearsal system.

Explains the Phonological Similarity Effect- it’s more difficult to remember similar sounding words than different sounding words. However, this effect wasn’t true regarding words with semantic similarity. This shows the phonological store depends on acoustic encoding.

27

What is the Visuospatial Sketchpad?

Deals with visual and spatial information

It deals with the info either directly through observing images or by retrieving visuospatial info from the LTM.

Uses a visual code to maintain + integrate the info

Spatial scan has been tested using the Corsi block tapping task, where participants have to recall a sequence of lit up block on a screen, with the number of lit up block increasing every time

28

What was an issue with the Original Working Memory Model, and how was this Addressed?

A problem with the original WMM was that it didn't explain why the phonological loop had such a limited storage, but far longer sentences could be bound together by meaning/grammar.

It also failed to explain the interconnections between subcomponents, as well as the LTM

Baddeley addressed this in 2000 and made a 4th component: Episodic Buffer

29

What is Episodic Buffer?

Episodic Buffer is a limited capacity system, that could integrate information between subcomponents, as well as feeding/retrieving info to and from the LTM.

30

What Evidence supports the Working Memory Model as a theory of memory?

William's Syndrome:
•Normal language ability, Impaired visuospatial ability
•Significant problems comprehending sentences with spatial prepositions
•Shows Association with visuospatial memory and language acquisitions

KF:
•Damaged parietal lobe
•Impaired language memory, normal spatial ability
•Proves they’re separate

Neuroimaging:
•Broca’s Area was activated during a rehearsal task
•Supramarginal Gyrus was activated when the Phonological Store was used
•Difficult to locate the area of the central executive

Baddeley + Hitch
•Ppts found it hard to do 2 visual tasks simultaneously
•Tracking a moving light, and tracking the edges of a capital ‘F’