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Flashcards in Cognition Deck (32)
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List the level of consciousness.

1. Alertness
2. Lethargy
3. Obtundation
4. Stupor
5. Coma
6. Unresponsive vigilance state
7. Minimally conscious state


Describe a patient who would be considered alert.

- opens eyes and looks at therapist
- responds fully and appropriately to stimuli


Describe a patient who is considered at a lethargy conscious level.

- pt appears drowsy; FALLS asleep EASILY

- opens eyes and looks at examiner

- responds to questions


Describe a patient who is demonstrating obtundation?

- opens eyes and looks at therapist

- responds to questions, but responds SLOWLY and is confused

-decreased alertness and interest in environment


Describe a patient in a stupor.

- can only be aroused from sleep with PAINFUL stimuli

- verbal responses are slow or absent

- Pr returns to unresponsive state with stimuli is removed

- demonstrates minimal awareness of self and environment


Describe a patient in a coma

- state of consciousness from which pt CANNOT be aroused

- eyes remained close

- no response to external stimuli or environment


Describe a patient in Unresponsive vigilance state.

- a state characterized by the return of sleep/wake cycles, normalization of vegetative vitals

- lack of cognitive responsiveness (can be aroused but is unaware)


What is considered a persistent vegetative state?

a state lasting > 1 year for TBI and >3 mons for anoxic brain injury


Describe a patient in a minimally conscious state.

State characterized by severely altered consciousness with nominal but definite evidence of self or environment awareness


A score ranging from 1-8 is considered what on the glascoma scale (GCS)

Severe brain injury


A score ranking from 9-12 is considered what kind of brain injury on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)?

Moderate brain injury


A score ranking from 13-15 is indicative of what kind of brain injury on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)?

Minor brain injury (scores 13-15)


When going through the Glasgow Coma Scale a therapist is assessing response to what three elements?

1. Eye opening
2. Motor response
3. Verbal response e


A therapist is wanting to test immediate recall (memory), how can she/he do this?

Name three items previous presented after a brief interval (i.e. 5 minutes)


A therapist is wanting to assess short-term memory of patient. How can he/she do this?

Recall recent events (i.e. What did you have for breakfast)


A therapist is wanting to assess remote (long-term) memory. How can he/she do this?

Recall of past events (i.e. where were you born? Where did you grow up)


A therapist asks a patient to recall seven numbers in the order they were presented. What is the therapist trying to assess?

Length of attention span and therapist is using a digit span retention test


A therapist wants to assess the patients ability to attend to task without redirection (sustained attention). How can he/she do this?

Determine time spent on task and frequency of redirection


Describe divided attention.

Ability to shift attention from one task to another


When assessing attention what else should a therapist assess?

Divided attention

Ability of dual task control

perseveration (mental inertia)


Describe perseveration.

Getting stuck on a task


Describe focused attention.

Ability to stay on task in presence of detractors


How would a therapist assess focused attention

Assess impact of environmental vs internal detractors


True or false: therapist should assess the ability of a patient to follow one- or two step, multilevel commands



List Emotional Responses/Behaviors that should be assessed.

1. Safety, judgment: impulsivity and lack of inhibition
2. Affect/mood: irritability, agitation, depression and withdrawal
3. Frustration tolerance
4. Self-centeredness
5. Insight into disabilty
6. Ability to follow rules of social conduct
7. Ability to tolerate criticism


List Higher-level cognitive abilities that can be assessed.

1. Judgement, problem-solving
2. Abstract reasoning
3. Fund of general knowledge: current events, ability to learn new information, generalize learning to new situations
4. Calculation: Serial 7 test (count backwards from 7)
5. Sequencing: ability to order components of cognitive or function task; assess if cueing is necessary, frequency of cues


The MMSE screening includes what items?



Attention and calculation

Recall and language


A max score on the MMSE is ?



A score on the MMSE 21-24 indicates what?

Mild cognitive impairment


A score on the MMSE of 16-20 indicates ?

Moderate impairment