What are the subdivisions of the nervous system?
- central nervous system
- brain and spinal cord
- peripheral nervous system
- brain and spinal cord
What is the difference between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system?
The central nervous system includes the nerves in bones. The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves not encased in bone.
What are ways in which psychologists study the functions of different brain areas?
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT or CT)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Positron Emisson Tomography (PET)
Functional MRI (fMRI)
Why are our brains wrinkled?
The surface of the brain is covered with neurons, and wrinkles (or fissures) increase the surface area so more neurons can connect with one another to transmit more information.
If you want to kick a soccer ball with your right foot, which hemisphere of the brain controls this, and what principle explains it?
The left hemisphere controls the motor function on the right half of the body and vice versa. This is called contralateral control.
There are four lobes in the brain. Name them.
Explain brain plasticity.
As our brains develop, there are skills or functions that are more or less important to perform to each individual. Because of this, the neuronal connections in our brains strengthen or weaken to adapt to those needed functions, especially if there is damage to other areas of the brain.
Where is the frontal lobe located?
What functions are associated with the frontal lobe?
parts of speech
Where is the parietal lobe located?
What functions are associated with the parietal lobe?
perception of stimuli
Where is the temporal lobe located?
What functions are associated with the temporal lobe?
perception/recognition of auditory stimuli
Where is the occipital lobe located?
What function is associated with the occipital lobe?
Where is the cerebellum located?
What are some functions associated with the cerebellum?
Fine motor control
Balance and equilibrium
Serotonin is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of mood, sleep, appetite, and memory.
Serotonin is derived from the amino acid tryptophan.
Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in mood, reward circuits, sleep, pleasure, and voluntary movement.
Dopamine plays a major role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia.
Norepinephrine is invovled in the body's fight-or-flight response and the activation of the sympathetic nervous system; it acts to increase heart rate and blood pressure, trigger the release of glucose, and increase blood flow to skeletal muscles.
Norepinephrine is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone, and is commonly referred to as noradrenaline.
Epinephrine is involved in the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and assists in the body's fight-or-flight response; it works to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, air passage diameters, and metabolic shifts.
Epinephrine is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter, and is commonly referred to as adrenaline.
Psychoactive drugs are chemicals that cross the blood-brain barrier and alter brain chemistry and functioning; these drugs lead to changes in perception, cognition, volition, mood, or behavior.
the blood-brain barrier
The blood-brain barrier is the barrier between circulating blood and the extracellular fluid of the brain.
The blood-brain barrier consists of tightly-bound cells lining blood vessels in and around the brain.
What must a drug do in order to have any psychoactive effect?
Drugs must cross the blood-brain barrier in order to have a psychoactive effect.
A stimulant is any drug that induces alertness or wakefulness, and improves mental or physical functioning.
Stimulants are often used to treat ADD and ADHD, as well as narcolepsy and other sleep disorders.
What are four legal or medically prescribed stimulants?
What are three illegal stimulants?
A depressant is any drug that reduces the activity of a certain part of the brain or body.
What are six examples of drug types listed under the category of depressant?
The umbrella group of depressant includes the following, among others:
An opiate is any narcotic substance derived from the opium poppy plant; opiates are considered to be the most effective drugs for relieving pain.