COASTS : Key terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in COASTS : Key terms Deck (62)
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1

Systems

Set of interrelated components working together towards some kind of process.

2

Open Systems

System where there are both inputs and outputs.

3

Inputs

The addition of matter and/or energy into a system.

4

Components

Parts of a system.

5

Stores

A part of the system where energy/mass is stored or transformed.

6

Flows/transfers

A form of linkage between one store/component and another that involves movement of energy or mass.

7

Outputs

The removal of matter and/or energy from a system.

8

Dynamic equilibrium

Lack of change in a system as inputs and outputs remain in balance.

9

Feedback loop

Involves a coupled system that collectively acts to accelerate or decelerate an initial change.

10

Backshore

The part of the beach lying between the foreshore and coastline.

11

Foreshore

The part of the beach which is wet due to the varying tide and wave run-up under normal conditions.

12

Inshore

The area between the low water mark and the point where the waves cease to have any influence on the land around them.

13

Offshore

The area beyond the point where waves cease to impact the seabed and in which activity is limited to the deposition of sediments.

14

Swash zone

The zone of wave action on the beach, which moves as water levels vary, extending from the limit of run-down to the limit of run-up.

15

Surf zone

The region of breaking waves.

16

Erosion

The wearing away of the Earth's surface by the mechanical action of processes of glaciers, wind, rivers, marine, waves and wind.

17

Fetch

Refers to the distance of open water over which a wind blows uninterrupted by major land obstacles.

18

Mass movement

The movement of material downhill under gravity, but may also be assisted by rainfall.

19

Weathering

The breakdown of rock on or near the earth's surface creating regolith that remains in situ until it is moved by latter erosional processes.

20

Prevailing wind

Winds that blow from a single direction over a specific areas of the Earth.

21

Abrasion

Where material carried by moving water or wind hits exposed rock surfaces, thus wearing them away.

22

Wave height

The difference between the elevations of a crest and a neighbouring trough.

23

Wavelength

The horizontal distance between two crests or troughs.

24

Wave frequency

The number or crests or troughs passing a stationary point per second.

25

Swash

The rush of water up the beach after a wave breaks.

26

Longshore current/ littoral drift

Where waves approach the shore at an angle and swash and backwash then transport material along the coast in the direction of the prevailing wind and waves.

27

Rip currents

Strong flow of water running from a beach back to the open ocean, sea or lake.

28

Tides

The

29

Upwelling

Process in which deep, cold water rises towards the surface - typically rich in nutrients.

30

Wave refraction

When waves approach a coastline that is not a regular shape, they are refracted and become increasingly parallel to the coastline. Concentrates wave energy on the headland, causing greater erosion.