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z - AQA GCSE Core Biology - Old spec > Cloning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cloning Deck (14)
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1

What is a clone?

An organism that is genetically identical to its parent.

2

Name the 2 methods of cloning plants.

Taking cuttings

Tissue culture

3

Describe how to clone a plant by taking cuttings.

Take a cutting from a plant.

Dip the cut end in rooting powder (auxin)

Plant in soil.

4

What does rooting powder do?

It causes a cutting to grow roots.

5

What are the advantages of cloning plants by taking cuttings?

Quick

Cheap

Clone plants with ideal characteristics.

6

Describe how to clone a plant by using tissue culture.

Scrape off a few plant cells.

Grow them in a petri dish containing agar.

Put the cloned plants in soil.

7

Why is tissue culture a better method of cloning than taking cuttings?

It is faster because you can grow more clones.

8

Name the 2 methods of cloning animals.

Embryo transplants.

Adult cell cloning

9

Describe the embryo transplant process of cloning cattle (cows)

  1. Mate prize bull and cow.
  2. Allow an embryo to develop.
  3. Split embryo many times before they specialise.
  4. Put embryos into womb of surrogate cows.
  5. The embryos grow into calves. All have the same genes (are clones).

10

Describe the process of adult cell cloning.

  1. Take an egg and remove the nucleus.
  2. Take the nucleus of an animal you want to clone from an adult cell.
  3. Insert the nucleus into the empty egg.
  4. Give the egg an electric shock to make it divide into an embryo.
  5. Place the embryo into the womb of a female.
  6. The embryo grows into a clone of the animal whose nucleus you placed into the egg.

11

What are the advantages of cloning plants and animals?

Allows you to produce lots of 'ideal' offspring.

Helps us to study diseases.

12

What are the disadvantages of cloning plants and animals?

All clones have the same genes so could be wiped out by disease.

Cloned organisms may not be as healthy as normal ones.

13

Identify the cloning process shown in the diagram

Embryo transplant

14

Identify the cloning process shown in the diagram

Adult cell cloning.