The African American worldview emphasizes the _____________ of all things and, as a result, African Americans tend to emphasize ________ welfare over ________ needs.
In African American culture, family is often an extended kinship network that includes nuclear and ___________ members, individuals __________ the biological family, and the ________.
In African American families, roles are often __________ and relationships between men and women tend to be _____________.
Boyd-Franklin's (1989) ________________ model for African American families is an example of an ______________ or ecological system approach, with a focus on addressing multiple systems, intervening at multiple levels, and empowering the family by utilizing its strengths.
Some experts (e.g., Aponte, 1994; Paniagua, 1994) recommend using a ___________, directive, __________, problem-solving approach when working with African American clients and fostering empowerment by promoting _____________ in the therapeutic relationship.
When a therapist is not African American, is is often useful to discuss the client's reaction to having a ___________ of a ________________ during the initial session.
- Different ethnic/racial background
American Indian and Alaskan Native individuals are likely to exhibit a ___________ and holistic orientation to life that emphasizes harmony with nature and regards illness as a result of ___________.
American Indians/Alaskan Natives place greater emphasis on the __________ and ______ than on the individual.
- Extended family
American Indians/Alaskan Natives perceive time in terms of personal and seasonal ________, and are more ________ than future-oriented.
American Indians/Alaskan Natives exhibit a strong sense of _________ and _________, and consider ___________ more important than ___________.
American Indian clients may prefer a therapist who helps them _________ the values of their own culture, and be distrustful of a therapist's attempts to provide therapy in a ___________ environment.
Therapy guidelines for work with Alaskan Natives/American Indians include focusing on building ________ and _________ during initial sessions by demonstrating familiarity with and respect for the client's ________ and admitting any lack of knowledge.
A collaborative, ___________, client-centered approach that avoids highly ___________ or __________ techniques while incorporating elders, ___________, and other traditional healers is recommended with American Indians/Alaskan Natives.
- Medicine people
________________ incorporates family and community members into the treatment process and situates an individual's psychological problems within the context of his/her family, workplace, community, and other social systems.
Asian Americans tend to place greater emphasis on the ________ than on the _________, and adhere to a ___________ family structure and _________ gender roles.
- Group (family, community)
Asian Americans tend to emphasize __________, interdependence, and mutual __________/__________ in interpersonal relationships, and value restraint of ___________ that might otherwise disrupt peace and harmony and/or bring shame to the family.
- Strong emotions
In therapy with Asian Americans, a directive, _________, goal-oriented, ___________ approach that focuses on alleviating _________ is often preferred.
- Specific symptoms
Therapy guidelines with Asian Americans include emphasizing ___________ in therapy (e.g., by addressing family members in a way that reflects their status and respecting conversational distances).
When conducting therapy with Asian Americans, it is important to be aware that the functions of shame and obligation in Asian cultures is to reinforce ___________ to _________ roles and responsibilities.
When working with Asian American clients, one must remember that modesty and self-deprecation are not necessarily signs of ______________.
When working with Asian American clients, one may want to establish __________ and __________ early in therapy by, for example, disclosing information about one's educational background and experience.
When working with Asian American clients, premature termination can be prevented by providing the client with _________ and meaningful ________.
Asian clients may express their mental health problems as ____________, and focus more on ____________ than ___________.
- Somatic complaints
Hispanic and Latino individuals tend to emphasize __________ welfare and allegiance, view ____________ as healthy and necessary, consider discussing intimate personal details with strangers as __________.
Hispanic and Latino individuals tend to adopt a __________, tangible approach to life and often attribute the control of life events to ______, supernatural forces, acts of _______, or other external factors.
When working with a Hispanic or Latino client, a therapist should be _______ and ________, and adopt a __________ approach that focuses on the client's behavior, affect, cognitions, interpersonal relationships, and biological functioning.
Paniagua (1994) recommends ______________ with Hispanic/Latino clients because it reinforces _____________ and the extended _________.
- Family therapy
Guidelines for work with Hispanic/Latino clients include using _____________ (except during the initial contacts), being aware that Hispanic/Latino families are ___________, sex roles tend to be ___________, the ____________ bond tends to be stronger than other family relationships, differences in degree of __________ are often a source of individual and family problems, ___________ factors may have an impact, and mental health problems may be expressed as ____________.
- Somatic complaints
Youth who identify as non-heterosexual are more likely than their heterosexual peers to experience ___________, anxiety, and _________, and have a higher risk for ___________.
- Substance abuse
Martin and Hetrick (1988) found that social and emotional _____________ was the primary presenting problem for a sample of gay and lesbian adolescents seeking assistance at a social and educational agency for sexual minority youth.