The origin of the debate over the beneficial effects of psychotherapy is usually traced to a 1952 article by ____________, summarizing the result of ____ outcome studies published between 1920-1950.
Eysenck (1952) concludes that the effects of psychotherapy are "_______ or _________" and that any positive effects may reflect nothing more than spontaneous __________.
Eysenck (1952) based his conclusions on the finding that 72% of the neurotic adults in the __________ group showed improvement within two years of the onset of their symptoms, while only 66% of patients receiving __________ psychotherapy and 44% receiving __________ psychotherapy showed a substantial decrease in symptoms.
- No-therapy control
Eysenck's conclusions were challenged on ___________ grounds, including absence of pre-treatment assessment of _________ severity and other relevant ___________. Additionally, control patients were identified as potentially receiving "__________" from other sources.
Smith and colleagues were the first to apply the statistical technique known as ____________ to psychotherapy outcome research; the results of their analyses contradicted Eysenck's finding.
Meta-analysis is used to combine the results of multiple studies and involves calculating ______________, which converts the data from different studies to a common metric so that results can be quantitatively combined and compared.
Calculation of an effect size typically involves subtracting the mean outcome score of the _________ group from the mean outcome score of the _________ group and dividing the difference by the standard deviation of the ________ group. The difference between treatment and control groups is communicated in terms of __________ units.
In a study by Smith, _______, and Miller (1980), meta-analysis was used to combine the results of 475 outcome studies published between 1941-1976 and obtained a mean effect size of _____. This indicated that the average therapy client is better off than ____% of those who need therapy but remain untreated.
Based on the meta-analysis by Smith et al. (1980), Lipsey and Wilson (1993) conclude that effect size estimates for psychological treatments ______ or _______ those for medical and educational interventions, and support the claim that psychological treatments are generally ___________.
Meta-analyses ___________ found any one type of therapy to be consistently superior to any other type across different disorders, although there is some evidence that CBT is more effective for some disorders such as panic, ______, and compulsions.
- Have not
According to Lambert and _________ (1994), positive change in therapy is _______ to specific techniques, but factors treatments ________, such as catharsis, a positive relationship with the therapist, behavioral regulation, and cognitive learning/mastery.