According to Freud, human beings are determined by ________ forces, __________ motivations, biological/instinctual __________ and drives, and ___________ events occurring in the first __ years of life.
Freud's personality theory consists of a __________ theory and a ___________ theory.
Freud's structural theory posits 3 personality structures. These are the:
The id is present __________ and consists of a person's ____ and ____ instincts, which are the source of all ________ energy.
The ego develops at about _______ of age. It develops as a response to the id's inability to ________ all of its needs. It operates on the basis of the _______ principle, deferring gratification until an appropriate object is available in reality, and employs ______________ thinking.
- 6 months
In psychoanalytic theory, secondary process thinking is ________, rational ________ and planning.
The primary task of the ego is to _________ the conflicting demands of the ___ and reality and (once developed) the _________.
The superego emerges when a child is between ____ years of age, represents an __________ of society's values and standards as conveyed by a child's parents, attempts to permanently _______ the id's socially unacceptable impulses.
Freud's developmental theory emphasizes the _______ drives of the id and proposes that an individual's personality is formed during childhood as the result of experiences that occur during ____ predetermined stages of psychosexual development.
Freud's 5 stages of psychosexual development are (in order):
Oral Stage (timeframe):
Anal Stage (timeframe):
Phallic Stage (timeframe):
Latent Stage (timeframe):
5/6 - puberty.
Genital Stage (timeframe):
Puberty - adulthood.
In Freud's personality theory, the function of anxiety is to ______ the _____ to an impending internal or external _______.
Defense mechanisms arise from the ego's inability to __________ through rational, realistic means.
Ward off danger.
Defense mechanisms operate on an _________ level, and serve to deny or _______ reality.
The most basic defense mechanism is __________. It occurs when the id's ________ and needs are excluded from conscious _____________.
Reaction formation involves avoiding an ___________-evoking impulse by expressing its _________.
Projection occurs when a __________ impulse is attributed to another person or external source.
For Freudians, psychopathology stems from an _________, unresolved ________ that occurred during childhood.
For Freudians, phobias are the result of ________ of ______ onto an object or event that is symbolic of the object or even involved in an unresolved conflict.
In Freudian theory, depression is due to _______ coupled with ________ toward the object turned inward.
- Object loss
The primary therapeutic goals of psychoanalysis are to bring the ________ into ________ awareness, and to _________ previously repressed material into the personality.
The main targets of psychoanalysis are the client's free _________, dreams, __________, and transferences.
Psychic determinism is the belief that all behaviors are ___________ and serve some psychological ________.
Psychoanalysis consists of a combination of confrontation, ____________, interpretation, and working ________.
__________ involves making statements that help the client see his or her behavior in a new way.
__________ involves ________ the client's feelings and restating his/her remarks in clearer terms.