Family therapy is usually traced to the _______ when several practitioners and researchers began to identify the family as the locus of psychopathology.
"General Systems Theory" was first described by the biologist ___________.
Ludwig von Bertalanffy.
General Systems Theory defines a system as an entity that is maintained by the ______________ of its components and assumes that the actions of interacting components are best understood by studying them _______________.
- Mutual interactions
- In their context
Family therapists view the family as primarily an ________ system.
An open system continually ____________ from and ____________ to the environment, and is more ____________ to change.
- Receives input
- Discharges output
The Family therapy concept of "_____________" describes the tendency for a family to act in ways that maintain the family's equilibrium or status quo.
"____________," described by a mathematician in the ______, is known as the "science of communications and automatic control systems in both machines and living things."
A negative feedback loop _____________ and helps the system maintain the ____________.
- Reduces deviation
- Status quo
A positive feedback loop _____________ or change and thereby ____________ the system.
- Amplifies deviation
In therapy, positive feedback promotes ____________ in a dysfunctional family system.
Traditional schools of individual psychotherapy were influenced by a ____________, Lockean, _________ tradition that emphasizes linear _____________ relationships in which A causes B, but B does not affect A.
The influence of systems theory and cybernetics in family therapy is consistent with a _____________ tradition, and is evident in the adoption of a __________ view of causality in which A and B influence each other.
Family therapies focus on:
- The "_____ and _____"
- Are ______________
- Emphasize freedom of ___________
- Reflect a __________, relativistic perspective
- Here and now
The earliest contributors to family therapy include:
- Nathan A___________
- G__________ Bateson
- Murray B___________
_____________ was a child psychiatrist who eventually became known as the "grandfather of family therapy," integrating principles of __________ with a systems approach.
_____________ applied ideas drawn from systems theory and ____________ to the treatment of familes and is frequently cited for his work on the role of ____________ communication in the development of schizophrenia.
Double-bind communication involves conflicting __________ - e.g., "do that and you'll be punished" and "don't do that and you'll be punished" - with one injunction often being expressed verbally and the other nonverbally. In addition, the recipient is not allowed to comment on them or seek help from someone else.
____________ initial contribution to family therapy was his study of families with a schizophrenic child, which led to his conclusion that the ___________ of certain types of family interactions over at least _______ generations is involved in the ___________ of this disorder in the family member.