Flashcards in Cliff profiles Deck (24)
What is the 'relief' and what direct relationship is it included in?
Relief is the height and slope of the land which may also be affected by geology. There is a direct relationship between rock type, lithology and cliff profiles
What are cliff profiles subjected to?
Marine processes e.g. wave erosion and sub-aerial processes e.g. mass movement and weathering
Give an example of where glacial till rock can be found and its erosion rate
Give an example of where sandstone can be found and its erosion rate
Give an example of where limestone can be found and its erosion rate
Give an example of where granite can be found and its erosion rate
Name three igneous rocks
Granite, Basalt and Felsite
Name three sedimentary rocks
Sandstone, Shale and Limestone
Name three metamorphic rocks
Slate, Marble and Quartzite
Name four factors that affect erosion rate excluding geology and lithology
High energy waves
Absence of a beach
Rising sea levels
Name ten mass movements
Rotational and Translational landslides
Block slide, Rockfall, Topple
Debris avalanche and debris flow
Name eight methods of weathering
Carbonation, Oxidation, Hydrolysis, Freeze-thaw
Burrowing and roots
Define 'concordant coastline'
Bands of rock that run parallel to the coast
Define 'discordant coastline'
Bands of rock that run perpendicular to the coast
Name two formations of concordant and discordant coastlines
C - Dalmation and Haff coasts
D - Headlands and Bays
How do dalmation coasts form?
- Result of sea level rise
- Valleys and ridges run parallel to each other
- Valleys flood but the top of the ridges are still visible
- Series of offshore islands parallel to the coast
What features appear in haff coasts?
Long spits and lagoons aligned parallel to the coast
Headlands force incoming waves to (1) which concentrates their energy (2) increasing erosive power which steepens the cliff and forms (3)
At the headland
Caves and arches
When waves enter a bay (1) which causes deposition to form (2)
Their energy dissipates as it spreads
Sand or shingle beaches
Why is granite resistant to erosion?
Impermeable and interlocking crystals make them strong as they have few joints and lines of weakness
Describe the resistance of sedimentary rocks
Joints make them permeable, the younger the rock the more easy it is to erode especially with bedding planes and fractures
Describe the resistance of chalk
Porous due to air spaces
Describe the resistance of unconsolidated rock (boulder clay)
Not cemented and so easy to erode