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Flashcards in Cliff profiles Deck (24)
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1

What is the 'relief' and what direct relationship is it included in?

Relief is the height and slope of the land which may also be affected by geology. There is a direct relationship between rock type, lithology and cliff profiles

2

What are cliff profiles subjected to?

Marine processes e.g. wave erosion and sub-aerial processes e.g. mass movement and weathering

3

Give an example of where glacial till rock can be found and its erosion rate

Holderness coast
1-10m/yr

4

Give an example of where sandstone can be found and its erosion rate

Devon
1cm-1m/yr

5

Give an example of where limestone can be found and its erosion rate

Dorset
1mm-1cm/yr

6

Give an example of where granite can be found and its erosion rate

Cornwall
1mm/yr

7

Name three igneous rocks

Granite, Basalt and Felsite

8

Name three sedimentary rocks

Sandstone, Shale and Limestone

9

Name three metamorphic rocks

Slate, Marble and Quartzite

10

Name four factors that affect erosion rate excluding geology and lithology

High energy waves
Absence of a beach
Rising sea levels
Coastal management

11

Name ten mass movements

Rotational and Translational landslides
Block slide, Rockfall, Topple
Debris avalanche and debris flow
Earthflow, Creep
Lateral spread

12

Name eight methods of weathering

Carbonation, Oxidation, Hydrolysis, Freeze-thaw
Exfoliation, Aeoliation
Burrowing and roots

13

Define 'concordant coastline'

Bands of rock that run parallel to the coast

14

Define 'discordant coastline'

Bands of rock that run perpendicular to the coast

15

Name two formations of concordant and discordant coastlines

C - Dalmation and Haff coasts
D - Headlands and Bays

16

How do dalmation coasts form?

- Result of sea level rise
- Valleys and ridges run parallel to each other
- Valleys flood but the top of the ridges are still visible
- Series of offshore islands parallel to the coast

17

What features appear in haff coasts?

Long spits and lagoons aligned parallel to the coast

18

Headlands force incoming waves to (1) which concentrates their energy (2) increasing erosive power which steepens the cliff and forms (3)

Retract
At the headland
Caves and arches

19

When waves enter a bay (1) which causes deposition to form (2)

Their energy dissipates as it spreads
Sand or shingle beaches

20

Why is granite resistant to erosion?

Impermeable and interlocking crystals make them strong as they have few joints and lines of weakness

21

Describe the resistance of sedimentary rocks

Joints make them permeable, the younger the rock the more easy it is to erode especially with bedding planes and fractures

22

Describe the resistance of chalk

Porous due to air spaces

23

Describe the resistance of unconsolidated rock (boulder clay)

Not cemented and so easy to erode

24

Describe the resistance of metamorphic rock

Resistant and impermeable, crystals orientate in one direction which is a weakness