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Flashcards in CLEP - Sociology 1-2 Deck (44)
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1

Scientific perspective

Stresses acquiring objective empirical (actual) knwoeldge which can be measured from an actual experiance.

2

Sociological imagination

Term coined by C, Wright Mills
Describes knowledge that expresses both an understanding that personal troubles can often reflect broader social issues and problems a
Expresses the humanistic aspect of the sociological perspective

3

Theological stage

1st stage in a pattern of development in which scientists look toward the supernatural realm of ideas for an explanation of what they observe

4

Metaphysical stage

2nd stage in a pattern of development in which scientists begin to look to the real world for an explanation of what they have observed

5

Positive stage

3rd and Final/definitive stage of pattern of development of all knowledge in which scientists search for general ideas or laws

6

Deductive theory

Proceeds from general ideas, knowledge, or understanding of the social world from which specific hypotheses are logically deduced and tested

7

Inductive theory

concrete observations from which general conclusions are inferred through a process of reasoning

8

Interpretative theory

human beings attach meaning to their lives; includes the perspective of symbolic interaction

9

Conflict theory

View of the social world that questions how factors such as race, sex, social class, & age are associated with an unequal distribution of socially valued goods & rewards

10

Structural functionalism

View of society as a social system of interrelated parts & analogous to a living organism where each part contributes to the overall stability of the whole;

society is seen as a complex system whose components work with one another

11

Conflict paradigm

View of society as being characterized by conflict & inequality

12

Research methods

Refers both to a strategy or plan for carrying out research & the means of carrying out the strategy

13

Quantitative methods

Research method that makes use of statistical & other mathematical techniques of quantification or measurement in an effort to describe & interpret observations

14

Qualitative methods

Research method that relies on personal observation & description of social life in order to explain behavior

15

Verstehen

Understanding as a means of characterizing & interpreting or explaining through applying reason to specific social situations;

developed by Max Weber

16

Survey method

Method of observation in which subjects are asked about their opinions, beliefs, or behavior; info is collected directly from the respondents by means of an interview or indirectly by means of a self-administered written form of a questionnaire

17

Descriptive survey

Captures info about a situation, condition, event, attitude, or opinion at a specific time

18

Explanatory survey

Captures info in order to test theories & casual or correlational relationships between variables

19

Independent variable

A variable that influences another variable

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Dependent variable

Variable that is influenced by another variable

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Correlational relationship

Exists when a change in one variable coincides with, but does not cause, a change in another

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Causal relationship

Exists when a change in one variable causes or forces a change in the other

23

Representative sample

A sample of respondents that accurately reflects the population from which it is drawn

24

Random sample

A sample where every member of the population has the same chance of being chosen for study

25

Systematic sampling

A type of sample in which the nth unit in a list is selected for inclusion in the sample

26

Stratified sampling

A type of sampling that uses the differences that already exist in a population as the basis for selecting a sample; knowing the percentage of the population that falls into a particular category, the researcher then randomly selects a number of persons to be studied from each category in the same proportion as exists in the population

27

Stratified sampling

A type of sampling that uses the differences that already exist in a population as the basis for selecting a sample; knowing the percentage of the population that falls into a particular category, the researcher then randomly selects a number of persons to be studied from each category in the same proportion as exists in the population

28

Experimental group

A group of subjects to be studied

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Control group

A similar population to the experimental group upon which the action has not been performed

30

Unobtrusive observation

Observation from a distance, without being involved in the group or activity being studied