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Flashcards in Classifying Coasts Deck (21)
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1

Define ‘strata’

Layers of rock

2

Define ‘bedding planes’

Horizontal cracks which are natural breaks in the strata caused by gaps in time during periods of rock formation

3

Define ‘joints’

Vertical cracks caused by contraction as sediments dry out or earth movements during uplift

4

Define ‘folds’

Formed by pressure during tectonic activity which makes rocks buckle and crumple

5

Define ‘faults’

Formed when the stress or pressure to which a rock is subjected exceeds its internal strength causing it to fracture, the faults then moves along fault planes

6

Define ‘dip’

This refers to the angle at which strata lie (horizontally, vertically, towards/ away from the sea)

7

Explain what a sediment cell is

Areas along the coastline where the movement of material is largely self-contained (closed coastal sub system) often determined by the topography and shape of the coastline tending to be between headlands and peninsulas which act as barriers of sediment movement

8

What is significant about the cliffs at the wash sediment cell?

Sandstone retreating at 1m/yr

9

Name four ways in which a coast can be classified

- Geology
- Energy
- Balance
- Changes in sea level

10

What five factors does the morphology of the coast depend on?

- Lithology
- Relief
- Rock type
- Permeability
- Resistance to erosion

11

Define ‘coastal morphology’

Shape and form of coastal landscapes and their features

12

Define ‘lithology’

The physical characteristics of rocks including strata, folds, bedding planes, faults, joints and dips

13

Sediment is sourced by (1) as part of a (2) cell which is then transported and deposited to form (3)

Weathering and erosion
Littoral
Coastal landforms

14

The Wash sediment cell:
Main source of sediment is (1) at West (2) to the (3) of the wash, the sandstone cliffs are retreating at (4) some sediment comes from (5) which pick up (6) from the (7) sea floor

Cliff erosion
Runton
East
1m/yr
Tidal currents
Glacial deposits
Shallow

15

The wash sediment cell:
Erosion of the (1) cliffs to the north carried south in (2) to the (3) coast, (4) rivers discharge into the wash

Holderness
Suspension
Lincolnshire
Four

16

Name the four inputs

-Marine (waves, tides and storm surges)
-Atmospheric (weather, climate, climate change and solar energy)
-Land (rock type, structure and tectonic activity)
-People (human activity and coastal management)

17

Name the five processes

Weathering
Mass movement
Erosion
Transport
Deposition

18

Name the three outputs

Erosional landforms
Depositional landforms
Types of coasts

19

Define and describe the ‘littoral zone’

The area between the land and the sea, it is a zone rather than a line because tides and storms affect a band around the coast and constantly changing because of the dynamic interaction between processes operating in the sea and on land

20

Valentin coasts classification (1952)
A (1) type design with (2) coast on the right and (3) on the left, as well as ‘coast (4)’ on the top left and bottom right at the top is labelled (5) and the bottom (6)

Wheel
Advancing
Retracting
Stationary
Emergence
Submergence

21

Valentin coasts classification (1952)

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