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Flashcards in chronic inflammation Deck (50)
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1

what is the difference between innate and adaptive immunity?

innate is ready to respond immediately whereas adaptive takes longer and shows memory

2

what are the characteristics of acute inflammation?

quick onset and offset

3

what is exudation?

it occurs in acute inflammation when there is increased blood flow into the area and increased fluid leaving through the permeable vessels

4

what happens in acute inflammation?

releases proteins that are important for the acute immune response such as fibrinogen and cells leak out - usually neutrophils

5

what are the symptoms acute inflammation?

rubor, calor, dolor, tumor

6

how can you account for the symptoms of acute inflammation?

exudation - tumor / swelling
increased blood flow - rubor
blood flow - calor
dolor - swelling

7

what are the outcomes of acute inflammation?

repair or regeneration
repair - organisation occurs through replacement by granulation tissue and a fibrous scar
resolution - phagocytosis of insulting pathogen, fibrinolysis, phagocytosis of debris

8

what cells are involved in chronic inflammation?

lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages - mononuclear inflammatory cells

9

what happens in resolution?

resolves situation, remove the foreign agent by breaking down, mainly by macrophages

10

why does repair occur?

it is when there is too much damage for resolution to occur or damage to cells that cannot regenerate

11

how does repair occur?

organisation - replacement by granulation cells - new blood vessels form and collagen deposition by fibroblasts - collagen causes the scar

12

why does chronic inflammation occur?

if there is ongoing damage or it isn't resolved by acute inflammation

13

what are the issues of the fibrous scar?

it is a defect - can cause issues such as intestine in the abdomen getting caught around the scar

14

what are the characteristics of innate immunity?

it takes hours to days, there is blood vessel dilation and increased permeability, fluid exudation which is rich in proteins such as Ig, and neutrophil recruitment, mast cells and macrophages

15

what consists chronic inflammation?

adaptive and innate immunity - two systems exist together

16

what happens in chronic inflammation?

angiogenesis and fibrosis

17

what is amyloidosis?

it is when proteins misfold and form aggregates - found in various parts of body and damage the tissues they are deposited in

18

when does cachexia occur and what is it?

it is weight loss - the patient will be emaciated and it occurs secondarily to cytokine release from CIR

19

why does anaemia occur?

RBC production decreases and cytokine release affects the way iron is used around the body

20

what does concomitant mean in chronic inflammation?

two events happen at the same time - tissue destruction and repair

21

what does H. Pylori cause?

acute inflammation of the stomach, and gastritis

22

what can cause chronic inflammation?

autoimmunity, unknown, repeated episodes of acute inflammation, progression from acute inflammation, asbestos entering the lungs, toxic agents

23

what is chronic cholecystitis?

it is repeated inflammation of the gallbladder resulting in chronic inflammation

24

why does persistent infection result in chronic inflammation?

the infection is hard to remove so the immune system finds it hard to get rid of bacteria

25

how can we classify toxic agents, and what are examples of each?

exogenous - external stimuli such as asbestos fibres
endogenous - if there is a fragment of bone it is hard to break down and will remain in tissue

26

why does asbestos cause chronic inflammation?

macrophages cannot break it down so it remains there and fibres cause continual stimuli (same with non-degradable sutures)

27

why does autoimmunity result in chronic inflammation?

it is a new reaction to self antigens - the antigens are always there so will continue

28

what is produced in persistent infection that causes chronic inflammation?

reactive oxidative species - attempts to remove the infectious agent will also result in injury

29

how do H pylori work?

a chronic ulcer is common and destroy all the tissue by perforation

30

what is another example of chronic infection?

chronic pyelonephritis