Flashcards in chronic inflammation Deck (50)
what is the difference between innate and adaptive immunity?
innate is ready to respond immediately whereas adaptive takes longer and shows memory
what are the characteristics of acute inflammation?
quick onset and offset
what is exudation?
it occurs in acute inflammation when there is increased blood flow into the area and increased fluid leaving through the permeable vessels
what happens in acute inflammation?
releases proteins that are important for the acute immune response such as fibrinogen and cells leak out - usually neutrophils
what are the symptoms acute inflammation?
rubor, calor, dolor, tumor
how can you account for the symptoms of acute inflammation?
exudation - tumor / swelling
increased blood flow - rubor
blood flow - calor
dolor - swelling
what are the outcomes of acute inflammation?
repair or regeneration
repair - organisation occurs through replacement by granulation tissue and a fibrous scar
resolution - phagocytosis of insulting pathogen, fibrinolysis, phagocytosis of debris
what cells are involved in chronic inflammation?
lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages - mononuclear inflammatory cells
what happens in resolution?
resolves situation, remove the foreign agent by breaking down, mainly by macrophages
why does repair occur?
it is when there is too much damage for resolution to occur or damage to cells that cannot regenerate
how does repair occur?
organisation - replacement by granulation cells - new blood vessels form and collagen deposition by fibroblasts - collagen causes the scar
why does chronic inflammation occur?
if there is ongoing damage or it isn't resolved by acute inflammation
what are the issues of the fibrous scar?
it is a defect - can cause issues such as intestine in the abdomen getting caught around the scar
what are the characteristics of innate immunity?
it takes hours to days, there is blood vessel dilation and increased permeability, fluid exudation which is rich in proteins such as Ig, and neutrophil recruitment, mast cells and macrophages
what consists chronic inflammation?
adaptive and innate immunity - two systems exist together
what happens in chronic inflammation?
angiogenesis and fibrosis
what is amyloidosis?
it is when proteins misfold and form aggregates - found in various parts of body and damage the tissues they are deposited in
when does cachexia occur and what is it?
it is weight loss - the patient will be emaciated and it occurs secondarily to cytokine release from CIR
why does anaemia occur?
RBC production decreases and cytokine release affects the way iron is used around the body
what does concomitant mean in chronic inflammation?
two events happen at the same time - tissue destruction and repair
what does H. Pylori cause?
acute inflammation of the stomach, and gastritis
what can cause chronic inflammation?
autoimmunity, unknown, repeated episodes of acute inflammation, progression from acute inflammation, asbestos entering the lungs, toxic agents
what is chronic cholecystitis?
it is repeated inflammation of the gallbladder resulting in chronic inflammation
why does persistent infection result in chronic inflammation?
the infection is hard to remove so the immune system finds it hard to get rid of bacteria
how can we classify toxic agents, and what are examples of each?
exogenous - external stimuli such as asbestos fibres
endogenous - if there is a fragment of bone it is hard to break down and will remain in tissue
why does asbestos cause chronic inflammation?
macrophages cannot break it down so it remains there and fibres cause continual stimuli (same with non-degradable sutures)
why does autoimmunity result in chronic inflammation?
it is a new reaction to self antigens - the antigens are always there so will continue
what is produced in persistent infection that causes chronic inflammation?
reactive oxidative species - attempts to remove the infectious agent will also result in injury
how do H pylori work?
a chronic ulcer is common and destroy all the tissue by perforation