HLA-Cw*06:02 is associated with ____.
How are harmful responses prevented and the gut simultaneously protected?
Treg and Tfh reside in the Peyer's Patches; they can interconvert into one another as needed
What is the genetic association found in Celiac Disease?
90% of pts have HLA-DQ2 allele
IL-23 is associated with ____.
What does the combination of TGFβ + IL-6 do?
downregulates Treg and upregulates Th1, Th2, and Th17
What would happen if the Treg response was too strong?
appropriate responses to viruses and bacteria would be suppressed
What allele is associated with Chronic Beryllium Disease?
What is the Old Friends Hypothesis?
harmless microorganisms are important to prevent the immune system from responding too strongly to a non-threat; based on proper Treg balance
What cells make IL-6 and why?
epithelial and other cells; in response to stress or damage
What are the genetic associations in Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis?
several loci ID'd to correlate to disease; concordinance in twin studies; early genetic event causes increase in gut permeability so defensins, made by the gut, penetrate back into the tissues and act as DAMPs
How is TG2 an antigen in Celiac Disease?
it couples to but can't release gliadin, thereby making a B-cell autoantigen, and T-cells respond to this foreign + self hybrid
IL-6 and TGFβ are found together in pathogenesis of _____ and _____.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Periodontal Disease
HLA-DQ2 is associated with ______.
What allele is associated with psoriasis?
In response to stress or damage, epi and other cells secrete ____.
Which cytokine is implicated as pathogenic in psoriasis?
IL-23 from Th17
Name 2 hypotheses as to why there has been an increase in allergic responses and autoimmune diseases.
1. Hygeine Hypothesis 2. Old Friends Hypothesis
How do T0s differentiate into Tregs?
when TGFβ is present
Which cytokines are present in Periodontal Disease?
IL-6 and TGFβ
What is the antigen in Celiac Disease?
tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2)
What is the Hygeine Hypothesis?
exposure to environmental dirt and infections helps the immune system properly develop; otherwise Th2 dominates the system
What immunoglobulin do the Peyer's Patches resident B cell make?
What cells make IL-10, and what does it do?
dendritic cells; stimulates Treg development
How were whipworms shown to help UC and Crohns pts?
pts ingested harmless worm ova, which increased Treg cells in the gut, thereby suppressing Th1, Th2, and Th17 and relieving symptoms
What is tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2)?
the antigen in Celiac disease
What is Chronic Beryllium Disease?
pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis from beryllium dust inhalation
How does beryllium become antigenic in the lungs?
it covalently links to peptides, making novel epitopes that activate Th1 and maybe Th17, and later Th2
How can the gut revert to normal in Celiac Disease?
avoidance of gluten
What are Peyer's Patches?
clumps of lymphoid nodules in the ileum that are full of immune cells
What cytokine is in abundance in the Peyer's Patches?