Flashcards in Christianity Deck (59)
Explain: The Catholic Reformation
* In response to Protestant Reformation, Catholicism began to renew itself
* Pope Paul III called the Council of Trent between 1545 & 1563 which clarified Catholic teaching on important issues & addressed how to prevent abuses of church offices
* The Council:
o Affirmed the importance of the teaching tradition in the Church as a necessary interpretation of the scriptures & the importance of the 7 sacraments
o Responded to Luther’s insistence that people need faith for salvation, but rejected his idea that faith “alone” without good works was all that was needed
o Insisted that priests needed improved education so they could instruct & serve the people better
* The Council of Trent & the reform of the Catholic Church did not succeed in restoring unity in Christianity
* The main effort was to convince the Protestants of their error & bring them to conversion
* Sometimes this worked, but in many countries Catholics & Protestants fought each other
Ichthus: Christianity was illegal until the time of Emperor Constantine. This symbol indicated a place of Christian worship
Explain: Chi Rho
Chi Rho: the Greek symbol for Christ (Christos). Chi = x, & rho = R/P
How can Christians contribute to Ecumenism?
1. Study the scripture: which are the foundations of Christian life & the Christian churches
2. Pray always: especially the Lord’s prayer; take part in the week of prayer for Christian unity
3. Bring people together: always be hospitable, never exclude anyone, always be in solidarity with the poor & the oppressed, & be a friend to all
4. Take part in local ecumenical activities: involving Catholics & other Christian groups, such as meetings, retreats, or volunteering
5. Visit churches: & talk to people who belong to them to find out what they believe & how they live.
List the four foundation stones of Christianity
1. Keeping the Memory of Jesus Alive
2. Professing One's faith: The Creeds
3. The Ministers of the Church
4. Ecumenical Councils
Explain: Keeping the Memory of Jesus alive
* Apostles wrote down 27 books worth of Jesus’ teachings (the new testament) during the 1st century
* The New Testament includes the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the letters & the Book of Revelation
* The Letters of Paul were written in the 50’s CE before the Gospels to the churches he visited. They document Paul’s life, his faith in Jesus Christ & his concern for the churches he founded.
Explain: Professing one's faith: The Creeds
* Creeds are brief professions of faith from the Gospel developed for use in Eucharist & Baptism.
* They ensure that all Christians profess the same faith.
Explain Ministers of the Church
* All churches constructed after Jesus’ death were constructed with episcopos (overseer/head bishop) who were seen as successors of the Apostles.
* They were responsible for preaching the Gospel & keeping people faithful to the creeds
* St. Justin & Iraneus of Lyons are known as the church fathers
Explain Ecumenical Councils
* Created by Emperor Constantine & beginning in 325 CE
* Emperor Constantine gathered Bishops in Nicaea to judge Arius (the man who believed Jesus was God’s highest creature, not God himself). The Nicene Creed derived from this to clarify Jesus’ divinity.
*There have been 21 Ecumenical Councils
Founded by John Calvin
Five Points of Main Beliefs:
1. Humans cannot perform acts that contribute to their salvation.
2. Those who will be saved by God’s mercy are predetermined.
3. Christ died in the place of sinners & only those who are elected by Him will be saved.
4. The power of the Holy Spirit will overcome all obstacles the elect put in the way of God’s purposes.
5. God’s saving will cannot be opposed definitively. Those whom God has elected will be saved despite their actions.
* Includes Mennonites (founded by Menno Simmons). They –Anabaptists – believe in Adult Baptism & Pacifism (peace & opposition to war).
* They are devoted to the Bible & social justice.
Explain Anglicanism/ Church of England
~Started when Henry's marriage was not annulled and he created the Act of Supremacy making him the head of the Anglican Church
* Under Henry VII’s son’s rule (King Edward VI) Protestantism became more pronounced. Mass became structured by the Book of Common Prayer.Church images were dismantled, vestments were forbidden, & stone alters were replaced with wooden communion tables.
* After Edward’s 5 year reign, his sister Mary (a devout Catholic) burned people who refused to convert to Catholicism at the stake. After her 5 year reign, Elizabeth became Queen.
* Elizabeth reintroduced Protestantism during her 45 year reign & also kept many ancient traditions of the church.
* Anglicanism is the middle way between Catholicism & Reformed Protestantism
What is the Book of Common Prayer?
the primary liturgical prayer book for Anglicans
What is the Magisterium?
it is the authority that lays down what is the authentic teaching of the Church. For the Catholic Church, that authority is vested uniquely in the pope and the bishops who are in communion with him
What is a canon?
Members of certain religious orders in the Roman Catholic Church composed of priests and some choir canons who live in community, together in the past with lay brothers
Explain Vatican II
During the Second Vatican Council in 1965, the Church passed a decree on ecumenism and committed the Catholic Church to dialogue (official dialogue between Catholics and Protestants became a reality)
What is a Gentile?
One who is not Jewish: Christian
What is Incarnation?
The doctrine that God's son became fully human in Jesus Christ while fully divine. Christ was active in the creation of the world and now, through Incarnation is the means for salvation.
What is the Pope?
The head of the Roman Catholic Church (the Eastern Orthodox Church rejected the authority of the pope during the Eastern schism)
What is a martyr?
a person who is killed because of their religious (or other) beliefs
What is the Eucharist?
The main ritual of Catholicism. it is believed (by Catholics) to be the source and summit of the Church's life and mission. According to the Catholic Church, full communion will be achieved when all can fully participate in the Eucharist.
Who are Bishops?
Each church had a bishop at its head; Bishops were seen as successors of the Apostles. They were responsible for preaching the gospel and keeping the people faithful to the creeds. The early bishops are known as the church fathers
the Western sect of Christianity (after the Catholic Reformation); which believes in the authority of the pope
The stories, beliefs, etc., that have been part of the culture or a group of people for a long time
Explain: Church of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher
A church within the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem where Jesus Christ was crucified
Explain the Bible
Compromised of the Old Testament (The Hebrew Bible (and the New Testament (including the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the Letters of Paul, and the Book of Revelation); the Christian Bible is the cornerstone of the religion, defining the beliefs of the faith
A town where the first Church council was held
Is a place where a community of monks or nuns live in prayer and work. both East and West monasteries developed a form of Christian life that has greatly influenced how Christians see holiness and spirituality