Flashcards in Child Growth and Development Deck (44)
refers to specific changes in the body – size, weight, height, body mass – can be easily measured
refers to an increase in complexity – it involves progression – the child acquires more refined knowledge, behavior and skills
We define growth as specific ______changes and increases in the child’s size.
During the first year of an infant’s life, babies can grow ____ inches in length and triple their birth weight.
After the first year, a baby’s growth in length slows to ______ inches a year for the next two years and continues from age two or three to puberty at a rate of two to three inches each year.
Girls generally enter puberty between ages
boys generally enter puberty between ages
Growth proceeds from the _____downward and from the center of the _____outward.
Children gain control of the ____and____first, then the arms and finally the legs.
At birth, the brain, heart, and spinal cord are____ functioning to support the infant.
As children grow, the _____and______muscles develop followed by the finger and toe muscles.
5 principles of child development
1. Developmental sequence is similar for all
2. Development proceeds from general to specific
3. Development is continuous
4. Development proceeds at different rates
5. All areas of development are interrelated
a set of facts or principles analyzed in relation to one another and used to explain phenomena (a fact or behavior that can be observed).
Name the 5 levels in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
2. Comfort and Safety
4. Self esteem
According to Maslow, What motivates children to act the way they do?
needs being met
The first 4 stages of Erikson's development and ages
1. Infant (birth to 1 year) Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Toddler 1-3 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
3. Preschool 4-5 Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Grade School 6-12 Industry vs. Inferiority
Jean Piaget is most known for his work on the psychology of ______
Piaget was interested in learning how children develop an ______of the world.
Piaget's theory is based on the concept of ______ structures.
According to Piaget, children develop the ability to learn in _____basic stages. In each stage, development focuses around acquiring a different set of related_________
Jean Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development
1. sensorimotor (0-2) : explores the world through senses and motor skills
2. Preoperational (3-7): preschoolers and early school age children learn about their world through their actions
3. Concrete-operational (7-11) : older school age children learn about their world by applying logic
4. formal operational )11+: early high school children learn about their world by constructing and solving problems
Vygotsky developed the ________theory of learning
children acquire _______through culture
Children learn through ________experiences shared with a knowledgeable adult or peer. Initially, the person interacting with the child assumes more responsibility for guiding the learning. As the child learns, the responsibility is gradually transferred to him. This is an instructional technique called _______
A child can perform a task under adult guidance or with peer___________ that could
not be achieved alone. Vygotsky called this the_________ and claimed that learning occurred in this zone.
sone of proximal development
4 main strategies for successful reciprocal teaching:
1. generating questions for understanding
2. clarifying that they are understanding what they are reading
3.Stopping to predict from clues what they think will happen in the learning material
4. summarizing what they have read
5 areas of environment that affect a child's development
2. exercise levels
3. daily routines in physical activities
4. daily routines in learning
5. relationships with family and friends
Children’s development progresses in “ .”
fits and starts
Remember, it is the_______ of growth and development, not the age that is the important factor in evaluating a child’s progress.