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Flashcards in Child Growth and Development Deck (44)
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1

Growth

refers to specific changes in the body – size, weight, height, body mass – can be easily measured

2

development

refers to an increase in complexity – it involves progression – the child acquires more refined knowledge, behavior and skills

3

We define growth as specific ______changes and increases in the child’s size.

body

4

During the first year of an infant’s life, babies can grow ____ inches in length and triple their birth weight.

10

5

After the first year, a baby’s growth in length slows to ______ inches a year for the next two years and continues from age two or three to puberty at a rate of two to three inches each year.

5

6

Girls generally enter puberty between ages

8-13

7

boys generally enter puberty between ages

10-15

8

Growth proceeds from the _____downward and from the center of the _____outward.

head
body

9

Children gain control of the ____and____first, then the arms and finally the legs.

head
neck

10

At birth, the brain, heart, and spinal cord are____ functioning to support the infant.

fully

11

As children grow, the _____and______muscles develop followed by the finger and toe muscles.

arm
leg

12

5 principles of child development

1. Developmental sequence is similar for all
2. Development proceeds from general to specific
3. Development is continuous
4. Development proceeds at different rates
5. All areas of development are interrelated

13

Theory

a set of facts or principles analyzed in relation to one another and used to explain phenomena (a fact or behavior that can be observed).

14

Name the 5 levels in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

1. Physical
2. Comfort and Safety
3. social
4. Self esteem
5. self-actualizing

15

According to Maslow, What motivates children to act the way they do?

needs being met

16

The first 4 stages of Erikson's development and ages

1. Infant (birth to 1 year) Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Toddler 1-3 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
3. Preschool 4-5 Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Grade School 6-12 Industry vs. Inferiority

17

Jean Piaget is most known for his work on the psychology of ______

intelligence

18

Piaget was interested in learning how children develop an ______of the world.

intellectual understanding

19

Piaget's theory is based on the concept of ______ structures.

cognitive

20

According to Piaget, children develop the ability to learn in _____basic stages. In each stage, development focuses around acquiring a different set of related_________
and _______.

4
characteristics
abilities

21

Jean Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development

1. sensorimotor (0-2) : explores the world through senses and motor skills

2. Preoperational (3-7): preschoolers and early school age children learn about their world through their actions

3. Concrete-operational (7-11) : older school age children learn about their world by applying logic

4. formal operational )11+: early high school children learn about their world by constructing and solving problems

22

Vygotsky developed the ________theory of learning

social development

23

children acquire _______through culture

knowledge

24

Children learn through ________experiences shared with a knowledgeable adult or peer. Initially, the person interacting with the child assumes more responsibility for guiding the learning. As the child learns, the responsibility is gradually transferred to him. This is an instructional technique called _______
.

problem-solving
scaffolding

25

A child can perform a task under adult guidance or with peer___________ that could
not be achieved alone. Vygotsky called this the_________ and claimed that learning occurred in this zone.

collaboration
sone of proximal development

26

4 main strategies for successful reciprocal teaching:

1. generating questions for understanding
2. clarifying that they are understanding what they are reading
3.Stopping to predict from clues what they think will happen in the learning material
4. summarizing what they have read

27

5 areas of environment that affect a child's development

1. nutrition
2. exercise levels
3. daily routines in physical activities
4. daily routines in learning
5. relationships with family and friends

28

Children’s development progresses in “ .”

fits and starts

29

Remember, it is the_______ of growth and development, not the age that is the important factor in evaluating a child’s progress.

sequences

30

__________control most of a newborn child’s movements, while an eight- month old may already be pulling up on furniture and taking his first deliberate steps.

reflexes