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youth crime is not problematic but the way we deal with it is....

punitive-punishment is at the centre
criminalising-makes them a criminal


what are the 5 mains aims of the Wales rights approach

victims deserve sympathy and support too
should not victimise children
child friendly/appropriate/meaningful
victims should be supported separately
children are not trainee adults or mini adults


what does article 40 of the UNCRC state?

that children who have offended are allowed to be proper functioning, constructive members of society.
They need to be helped to do so by getting them involved in their interests and activities.


The Riyadh Guidelines 1990
"youthful behaviour is often part of the ????????? and tends to disappear spontaneously in most individuals with the ????????"

maturation and growth process
transition to adulthood
I.e. if you criminalise these individuals that would grow out of crime then you are hindering their development and their future prospects


The Riyadh Guidelines
"labelling a young child as ??????? often contributes to the development of consistent pattern of undesirable behaviour"

deviant, delinquent or pre-delinquent
i.e a child will live up to their labels


The welsh government universal entitlements are a group of services all students should have access too

access to services
basic skills
persona support and advice
advice on health etc
education, training and work experience
careers/student support
opportunity for community involvement
recreational and social opportunities


what is the welsh government extending entitlements

prevention strategy for all up to 25yrs old


what does the welsh government extending entitlements involve

focusing on building their capacity to become independent
more effective co-ordination and partnerships
focus on achievement and what they have to offer
improvements in quality and responsiveness of services e.g. mental health


what are the 3 main principles of CFOS



what is prevention

prevention of crime is encouraged by using positive promotion of behaviours, outcomes and services for all children


who provided the evidence for prevention

case et al, 2005


what did case et al, 2005 do

evidenced the effectiveness of extending entitlements in terms of improved positive outcomes and decreased in negative outcomes


what is diversion

focus on diverting children out of the YJS into positive, promotional interventions. Not punishment, justice, welfare or restorative, just away from system all together.


who provided evidence for diversion

Bureau model


what did the bureau model show

it showed it was becoming increasingly more effective in diversion with 64% of children who were potential entrants received a non-criminal disposal instead
And reconvictions following a diversion were lower than reprimands, final warnings and prosecutions.


what is the 2 things the bureau model is designed to do?

deliver genuine diversions from the system
to respond primarily to the child


what is intervetion

all intervention in the YJS should e child friendly and child appropriate.
Policy makers and practitioners should prioritise children's participation and engagements in all available services


what are some of the underlying principles of the CFOS policy

children are part of the solution, not the problem
children need to integrate with non-offenders (stops them being excluded)
prevention is better than cure
holistic approach-deal with whole child not just crime
children are vulnerable and in need of protection
effective cooperation is needed with all relevant agencies
children need to be restored to a full member of society


what are the 5 levels of intervetion

early intervention
community service


what are the 5 priorities of the CFOS approach

a well designed partnership approach
early intervention, diversion, prevention
reducing reoffending
effective use of custody--making it last resort and less damaging
resettlement and reintegration at end of sentence to make sure they are not excluded


you can identify those children at risk and divert them by...

ensure they are in some form of education, training or employment
using effective community programmes
ensure access to basic entitlements


what did David Cameron say in 2012 about prevention

it is the cheapest and most effective way to deal with crime


Hains and Case 2015

the term "offender" is not used to to the "narrowing, blaming effect and negative consequences it has"


Brakefood 2009

A CFOS approach to youth justice views offending as "only one element of a much wider and more complex identity"
Why treat children as an offender when that is only one small part of the child's identity?