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A Chi Square Test is...

used to compare two or more independent groups for their proportions

a statistical hypothesis test that uses a test statistic with a known probability distribution of chi-square distribution


How can you test statistically the effect of a new medication over the standard treatment on hypertensive subjects?

Run a statistical hypothesis test to compare the proportions of those who were responsive between experimental vs control groups.


Degree of Freedom

number of values that are free to vary as you estimate parameters


OR =



RR =

[a/(a+b)] / [c/(c/d)]


Assumptions for valid chi square tests

groups are independent

the value of the cell expected count should be 5 or more in at least 80% of cells

no cell should have an expected count less than 1


McNemar test

form of chi square test used with 2x2 contingency table that involved matched samples, where subjects act as their own controls


Fisher's Exact test

statistical hypothesis test used when you want to compare proportions between the 2 independent groups when data are sparse

a test resulting in the exact probability of the occurence of observed frequencies, given marginal totals