Flashcards in Chemistry of Life Deck (54)
pH of life
7.2 - 7.4
blood has to be slightly basic to accomodate for carbonic acid
What elements is life mostly composed of?
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen
4 macromolecules and function
Lipids: membranes, hormones, communication
Nucleic acids: store genetic information (can act as catalysts)
Proteins: structure, function, catalyst
Carbohydrates: store energy, indentification
Outermost shell of electrons
What is the bonding point?
Unpaired valence electrons
4 main types of bonds
2. Polar covalent
A single covalent bond has...
Nonpolar covalent bonds
electrons are shared equally
electrons are halfway between the two atoms
atoms have no charge
Polar covalent bonds
Electrons are not shared equally due to electronegatively
Why is water a polar molecule?
Oxygen has high electronegativity that attracts electrons. This gives it a partial negative charge and hydrogen gets a partial positive charge
What is CH4?
What is NH3?
chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons
What factors affect electronegativity?
Atomic number (# of protons)
Greater positive charge will attract more electrons
Label the 3 atoms of life in terms of increasing electronegativity
H, C, O
Strength of bonds
Nonpolar covalent are hardest to break (methane, hydrogen)
Polar covalent (water, ammonia)
Ionic bonds (NaCl) are easiest to break
have full charge
-OH functional group
hydroxyl, probably some type of alcohol
What does a functional group with oxygen probably indicate?
The molecule is probably polar
This means that it is hydrophilic
can interact with water through their charges
if it has a partial or full charge
cannot interact with water through these partial charges
Ex: hydrocarbons have no charge
What drives protein folding?
Interactions between hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules
Where are there hydrogen bonds in the hydrogen atom?
Between two different water molecules
(polar covalent is actually in the molecule)
an attractive interaction between polar molecules
Hydrogen bonds to atoms with a high electronegativity
What does hydrogen bonding lead to?
High specific heat
water can stick to itself
Why is water's high specific heat important?
It makes a good buffer in temperature which is important for life
water can stick to other things