Chapter 9 Vocab Flashcards Preview

MGMT 3720 - Organizational Behavior > Chapter 9 Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 Vocab Deck (32)
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1

Group

Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.

2

Formal Group

A designated work group defined by an organization's structure.

3

Informal Group

A group that is neither formally structures nor organizationally determined; such a group appears in response to the need for social contact.

4

Social Identity Theory

Perspective that considers when and why individuals consider themselves members of groups.

5

Ingroup Favoritism

Perspective in which we see members of our ingroup as better than other people, and people not in our group as all the same.

6

Five-stage Group-development Model

The five distinct stages groups go through: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

7

Forming Stage

The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty.

8

Storming Stage

The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict.

9

Norming Stage

The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.

10

Performing Stage

The fourth stage in group development, during which the group is fully functional.

11

Adjourning Stage

The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.

12

Punctuated-equilibrium Model

A set of phases that temporary groups go through that invokes transitions between inertia and activity.

13

Role

A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.

14

Role Perception

An individual's view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.

15

Role Expectations

How others believe a person should act in a given situation.

16

Psychological Contract

An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from an employee and vice versa.

17

Role Conflict

A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.

18

Norms

Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group's members.

19

Conformity

The adjustment of one's behavior to align with the norms of the group.

20

Reference Groups

Important groups in which individuals belong or hope to belong and with those whose norms individuals are likely to conform.

21

Deviant Workplace Behavior

Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization to its members. Also called antisocial behavior or workplace incivility.

22

Status

A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others.

23

Status Characteristics Theory

A theory that states that differences in status characteristics create status hierarchies within groups.

24

Social Loafing

The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.

25

Cohesiveness

The degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.

26

Diversity

The extent to which members of a group are similar to, or different from, one another.

27

Faultlines

The perceived divisions that split groups into two or more subgroups based on individual differences such as sex, race, age, work experience, and education.

28

Groupthink

A phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.

29

Groupshift

A change between a group's decision and in individual decision that a member within the group would make; the shift can be toward either conservatism or greater risk but it generally is toward a more extreme version of the group's original position.

30

Interacting Groups

Typical groups in which members interact with each other face to face.