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What 3 areas does the GII take into consideration when comparing the situation of women to men?

Empowerment, labor, and reproductive health


Define Gender Inequality Index (GII)

The amount of inequality between men and women in a country


Where are the highest GIIs?

Developed countries (Europe, North America, China, Australia, etc)


Where are GIIs the lowest?

Developing countries/ LDCs (Sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Asia)


What is empowerment?

The belief that women can achieve economic and political power and that all people are equal


What two indicators are measured to calculate the empowerment dimension of the GII?

The percent of seats held by women in the national legislature and the percent of women who have completed high school


What is the Female Labor Force Participation Rate?

The percentage of women who hold full time jobs outside the home


What region sees the highest numbers of women in the national legislature?



What is the percentage of women in the national legislature in Europe?

About 25%


What is the percentage of women in the national legislature in the US?

About 16.67%


Why does the UN include reproductive health as a contributor to the GII?

Because in countries where effective control over reproduction is universal, women have fewer children and because of that, maternal and child health is improved


What has been the trend in gender inequality since the 1990s?

It has declined


What regions have shown the greatest improvements on the GII?

Southwest Asia and North Africa


Where does the US rank on the GII and why?

It ranks 47 because of the lack of reproductive rights and the low percentages of women in national legislature


How many countries in the world treat women equally to men?



What are the 2 ways to measure gender inequality?

The Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)


What does a GDI of 1.0 indicate?

Complete gender equality


What are the 3 factors of the GDI?

Economic (female income as compared to men), Social (number of females enrolled in school and are literate), and Demographic (life expectancy of women)


What are some differences between the top 10 HDI and the top 10 GDI?

The US, Canada, and Australia are all high on the HDI and not even in the top ten for GDI.


What is the GEM?

A measure of women's economic and political power


What are the 2 factors that are considered when calculating GEM?

Economic (salary and access to professional employment) and Political (percentage of women in political leadership roles)


What are the differences between GDI and GEM?

The GDI focuses on the expansion of capabilities for women and the GEM is concerned with the use of those capabilities to take advantage of all the opportunities of life.


Define supply

The quantity of something that producers have available


Define demand

The quantity of a product consumers are able and willing to buy


What are the 3 principle types of consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas?

Businesses, homes, and transportation


Where is coal found?

Tropical locations, swampy areas, and mid-latitude countries


What is petroleum and where is it found?

It's residue deposited on the sea floor millions of years ago and is found in developing countries that were once under water


What is natural gas and where is it found?

It is sediment deposited millions of years ago on the sea floor and is found in developing countries that were once under water


Explain 3 ways potential reserves can become proven reserves

Undiscovered fields, enhanced recovery from already discovered fields, and unconventional sources


What is OPEC?

An alliance called the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting countries