Flashcards in Chapter 9: Foundations of Group Behavior Deck (40)
two or more people trying to achieve a common goal
a designated work group defined by an organization's structure
a group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined, such a group appears in response to the need for social contact
social identity theory
proposed that people have emotional reactions to the failure or success of their group because their self-esteem gets tied to whatever happens to the group
how might people define themselves?
the city you live in, the team you are on, your profession, your religious background, your ethnicity, and your gender
how do our social identities help us?
help us understand who we are and where we fit in with other people; research indicates they bring us better health and lower levels of depression because we become less likely to attribute negative situations to internal or insurmountable reasons
perspective in which we see members of our ingroup as better than other people, and people not in our group as all the same.
people with low agreeableness show higher levels of ingroup favoritism
the inverse or an in-group, which can mean everyone outside the group
social identity threat
individuals believe they will be personally negatively evaluated due to their association with a devalued group, and they may lose confidence and performance effectiveness
punctuated equilibrium model (PEM)
a set of phases that temporary groups go through that involves transitions between inertia and activity
first stage of PEM
group decided their general direction and a framework for behavioral patterns and assumptions through which the group will approach its project emerges
second stage of PEM
the groups last meeting is characterized by a final burst of activity to finish its work.
a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. different groups impose different role requirements on individuals
our view of how we're supposed to act in a given situation is a role perception. we get these stimuli from all around us - for example, friends, books, filsm and television, as when we form an impression of politicions from House of Cards
how other believe a person should act in a given situation
an unwritten agreement that sets out what a manager expects from an employee, and vice versa
perceptions of psychological contracts vary across cultures
a situation in which an individual is cronfronted by divergent role expectations
a situation in which the expectations of an individual's different, separate groups are in opposition
acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group's members
the adjustment of one's behavior to align wit the nroms of the group
important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform
deviant workplace behavior
voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens well-being of the organization or its members.
what is important to know about a work group?
they can become characteized by positive or negative attributes
socially defined position and rank given to groups or group members by others
status characteristics theory
a theory stating that differences in status charactersistics create status hierarchies within groups
what determines status?
1) the power a person wields over others
2) a person's ability to contribute to a group's goals
3) an individual's personal characteristics
group size can affect the group dynamics, but it depends on what dependent variable you're analyzing. If you're fact-finding, more people will be better for the group
the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.
This is not consistent with collectivist cultures
ways to prevent social loafing
set group goals, so the group has a common purpose to strive toward
2) increase intergroup competition, which focuses on the shared group outcome
3) engage in peer evaluations
4) select members who have high motivation and prefer to work in groups
5) base group rewards in part by each member's unique contributions