Chapter 9-Foundations of Group Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9-Foundations of Group Behavior Deck (141)
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1

What sort of groups is defined by the organization's structure?
A) informal
B) task
C) friendship
D) interest
E) formal

E) Formal

2

When do informal groups appear?
A) in response to the need for social contact
B) in reaction to formal groups
C) as a result of social needs
D) most frequently in bureaucracies
E) when formal groups cannot meet their goals

A) in response to the need for social contact

3

Julia, Bree and David work in different departments, but often eat lunch together. They are an example of what type of group?
A) formal
B) informal
C) command
D) task
E) reactant

Informal

4

Which of the following is not one of the most common reasons people join groups?
A) security
B) status
C) equity
D) power
E) goal achievement

C) equity

5

Most common reasons people join groups:

-Security
-Status
-Power
-Goal Achievement

6

Which of the following is true?
A) All groups provide the same benefits to their members.
B) Different groups provide different benefits to their members.
C) Different groups provide the same benefits to their members.
D) Group members seldom reap any benefits from their membership. E) all of the above

B) Different groups provide different benefits to their members.

7

When group members "test the waters" to determine what behaviors are acceptable, they are most likely in which stage of group development?
A) forming
B) storming
C) norming
D) performing

A) forming

8

John's group has developed a strong sense of group identity and has assimilated a common set of expectations defining appropriate member behavior. John's group has most likely completed which stage of group development?
A) forming
B) storming
C) norming
D) performing

C) norming

9

Which of the following is NOT one of the five stages of the group development model?
A) forming
B) storming
C) joining
D) adjourning

C) joining

10

The curriculum committee members are resisting some of the newly created policies and are in conflict over who will chair the committee. They are most likely in which stage of group development?
A) forming
B) storming
C) norming
D) adjourning

B) storming

11

For permanent work groups, which is the last stage in the group's development?
A) forming
B) storming
C) norming
D) performing

D) performing

12

Which of the following statements is true concerning the five stage group development model?
A) Stage IV (performing) is always the most preferable.
B) Several stages can go on simultaneously.
C) Groups in Stage III will outperform those in Stage II.
D) Groups proceed clearly from one stage to the next sequentially.

B) Several stages can go on simultaneously.

13

What term is used for a set of expected behavior patterns associated with a particular position in a social unit?
A) role
B) role perception
C) role identity
D) role expectation
E) identity

A) role

14

Our view of how we are supposed to act in a given situation is
A) role identity.
B) role ambiguity.
C) role expectation.
D) role perception.
E) role conflict.

D) role perception.

15

When Judith became a doctor she modeled her manner on her observations of more experienced doctors, and also on the behavior of doctors in medical dramas she had enjoyed watching as a child on TV. What is Judith modeling her manner upon?
A) the role behaviors of doctors
B) her role perception of doctors
C) the role identity of doctors
D) her role expectation of doctors
E) the core role actions of doctors

B) her role perception of doctors

16

Which of the following is true of role identity?
A) Role perception creates the attitudes and actual behaviors consistent with a role. B) People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when the situation requires change.
C) There is considerable inertia in role identity after roles are changed.
D) Everyone is required to play one specific role in every situation.
E) No two people ever agree on what constitutes a role.

B) People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when the situation requires change.

17

Several years ago you began a small retail store to sell computer parts. The store grew and the business expanded to offer computer repair and custom programming. You have noticed that people have definite expectations about what their appropriate roles within the expanding company should be. You can help the people in the company understand their roles and the roles of other people by explaining some common facts about roles. Which of the following is not true?
A) Each person will be expected to play a number of diverse roles.
B) Most people have the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognize that the situation and its demands require major changes.
C) Role perception is how people believe others are expected to act in their given roles.
D) It may be helpful for them to view role expectations through the perspective of a psychological contract.
E) People can be flexible in the roles that they play.

C) Role perception is how people believe others are expected to act in their given roles.

18

John is expected to help customers in the retail store as well as perform computer repair work. He feels that every time he gets started on a repair, he is interrupted and doesn't know whether to finish his repair or wait on the customer. John suffers from role ________.
A) conflict
B) expectations
C) perception
D) identity
E) duality

A) conflict

19

Most people assume that a police officer should behave in a lawful manner, and not show any favoritism to any particular group, and do their best to uphold the law. What term is used for this kind of belief?
A) a norm
B) a norm identity
C) a role expectation
D) a role perception
E) a norm violation

C) a role expectation

20

Zach is devout and very active in his church. He is also a very dedicated employee. His manager offers him a promotion but the new role will require him to work Sundays. Zach would like the promotion, but realizes that it would force him to miss some church activities. It is likely that Zach is experiencing which of the following?
A) role conflict
B) role expectation
C) role perception
D) psychological conflict
E) cognitive reactance

A) role conflict

21

Zimbardo's experiment at Stanford University demonstrated which of the following?
A) Individuals will often do anything as long as it's consistent with their role identity.
B) Roles are defined by external authority figures.
C) Divergent role expectations create role conflict.
D) All groups have established norms.
E) People will conform even when they know they are wrong.

A) Individuals will often do anything as long as it's consistent with their role identity.

22

What term is used for acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by a group's members?
A) norms
B) rules
C) standards
D) codes of behavior
E) explicit contracts

A) norms

23

Which of the following is an example of a performance norm?
A) how hard group members should work
B) how the job should be performed
C) how much tardiness is appropriate
D) all of the above

D) all of the above

24

Which of the following is NOT a finding of the Hawthorne studies?
A) A worker's behavior and sentiments are closely related.
B) Group standards are highly effective in establishing individual worker output.
C) Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security.
D) Competition between groups will maximize group output.
E) Group influences are significant in affecting individual behavior.

D) Competition between groups will maximize group output.

25

The Hawthorne researchers began by examining
A) the relation between the physical environment and productivity.
B) the role of money in determining worker output.
C) the role of group standards in determining worker output.
D) Mayo's research at Harvard.
E) the bank wiring group.

A) the relation between the physical environment and productivity.

26

What is the most often cited finding of the Hawthorne studies?.
A) A group's performance is significantly affected by being observed.
B) Increases in illumination increase productivity.
C) Role identities often lead to role expectations.
D) Cohesive groups always perform at high levels.
E) Groups are gentle and subtle when enforcing their norms with their members.

A) A group's performance is significantly affected by being observed.

27

In the follow-up portion of the Hawthorne studies with the bank wiring group, interviews determined that the group was operating well below its capability. Members were afraid that if they significantly increased their output,
A) the unit incentive rate would be cut.
B) the expected daily output will be increased. C) layoffs might occur.
D) slower workers will be reprimanded.
E) all of the above

E) all of the above

28

What term is used for the process by which an individual's desire for acceptance by the group and the pressure by the group on individual members to match its standards results in a change in individual attitudes and behaviors?
A) conformity
B) coercion
C) commitment
D) convergence
E) confluence

A) conformity

29

38) The important groups to which people belong or hope to belong are known as
A) conformist groups.
B) status groups.
C) reference groups.
D) command groups.
E) nonconformist groups.

C) reference groups.

30

In Asch's experiment, what percent of the subjects gave at least one answer that conformed to an option which they knew was wrong but was consistent with the replies provided by the other group members?
A) 10
B) 20
C) 40
D) 60
E) 75

E) 75