Chapter 8 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Vocab Deck (44)
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1

Job Design

The way the elements in a job are organized.

2

Job Characteristics Model (JCM)

A model that proposes that any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback.

3

Skill Variety

The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities so the worker can use specialized skills and talents.

4

Task Identity

The degree to which a job requires a completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.

5

Task Significance

The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.

6

Autonomy

The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.

7

Feedback

The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of her or her performance.

8

Motivating Potential Score (MPS)

A predictive index that suggests the motivating potential in a job.

9

Job Rotation

The periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another.

10

Job Enrichment

The vertical expansion of jobs, which increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of the work.

11

Flextime

Flexible work hours.

12

Job Sharing

An arrangement that allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job.

13

Telecommuting

Working from home at least two days a week on a computer that is linked to the employer's office.

14

Employee Involvement

A participative process that uses the input of employees and is intended to increase employee commitment to an organization's success.

15

Participative Management

A process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision making power with their immediate superiors.

16

Representative Participation

A system in which workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees.

17

Variable-pay Program

A pay plan that bases a portion of an employee's pay on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance.

18

Piece-rate Pay Plan

A pay plan in which workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed.

19

Merit-based Pay Plan

A pay plan based on performance appraisal ratings.

20

Bonus

A pay plan that rewards employees for recent performance rather than historical performance.

21

Skill-based Pay

A pay plan that sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do.

22

Profit-sharing Plan

An organization-wide program that distributes compensation based on some established formula designed around a company's profitability.

23

Gainsharing

A formula-based group incentive plan.

24

Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)

A company-established benefits plan in which employees acquire stock, often at below-market prices, as part of their benefits.

25

Flexible Benefits

A benefits plan that allows each employee to put together a benefits package individually tailored to his or her own needs and situation.

26

The first three dimensions—skill variety, task identity, and task significance—combine to create meaningful work the incumbent will view as important, valuable, and worthwhile.

From a motivational standpoint, the JCM proposes that individuals obtain internal rewards when they learn (knowledge of results) that they personally (experienced responsibility) have performed well on a task they care about (experienced meaningfulness). the more these three psychological states are present, the greater will be employees' motivation, performance, and satisfaction, and the lower their absenteeism and likelihood of leaving.

jobs with high autonomy give incumbents a feeling of personal responsibility for the results; if a job provides feedback, employees will know how effectively they are performing.

Individuals with a high growth need are more likely to experience the critical psychological states when their jobs are enriched—and respond to them more positively—than are their counterparts with low growth need.

27

The first three dimensions—skill variety, task identity, and task significance—combine to create meaningful work the incumbent will view as important, valuable, and worthwhile. From a motivational standpoint, the JCM proposes that individuals obtain internal rewards when they learn (knowledge of results) that they personally (experienced responsibility) have performed well on a task they care about (experienced meaningfulness). Individuals with a high growth need are more likely to experience the critical psychological states when their jobs are enriched—and respond to them more positively—than are their counterparts with low growth need.

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28

Strengths of job rotation are that it reduces boredom, increases motivation, and helps employees better understand their work contributions. Indirect benefits include employees with wider ranges of skills that give management more flexibility in scheduling, adapting to changes, and filling vacancies. Some weaknesses of job rotation include disruptions, a need for extra time for supervisors addressing questions and training time, and reduced efficiencies.

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29

Exhibit 8–2 shows guidelines for job enrichment. Job enrichment expands jobs by increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of the work.

The first guideline is combining tasks that puts fractionalized tasks back together to form a new and larger module of work. Second is forming natural work units that make an employee’s tasks create an identifiable and meaningful whole. Third, establishing client relationships increases the direct relationships between workers and their clients. (Clients can be internal as well as outside the organization.) Fourth, expanding jobs vertically gives employees responsibilities and control formerly reserved for management. Finally, opening feedback channels lets employees know how well they are doing and whether their performance is improving, deteriorating, or remaining constant.

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30

Alternative work arrangements are also used to boost motivation. They include flextime, defined as flexible work hours like those shown in Exhibit 8-3. This allows employees some discretion over when they arrive at and leave work. Benefits include reduced absenteeism, increased productivity, reduced overtime expense, reduced hostility toward management, and increased autonomy and responsibility for employees. A major drawback is that it’s not applicable to all jobs or all workers.

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