Flashcards in Chapter 8: Political Geography Deck (34)
a city that forms an independent state with the surrounding territory
What is colonialism?
effort by one country to establish settlements in a territory and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on the territory.
states with very small land areas
group of people who share common traits; tightly knit group of people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, or other shared cultural attributes
independence from any outside control of internal affairs; autonomy of a country
A state is...
An area organized in a _______ unit and ruled b an established _______ that has control over its ______ and _____ affairs.
Why is the sovereignty of Western Sahara disputed?
Morocco claims Western Sahara, but most countries in Africa consider Western Sahara sovereign
Describe the relationship between China and Taiwan.
China's government considers Taiwan a part of China, but most other countries consider China and Taiwan as separate nations.
territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent
What is a state territory that mainly corresponds to a particular ethnicity?
Japan, Iceland, Denmark, Slovenia
What is a multinational state?
country that contains more than one ethnicity (opposite of a nation state)
Russia recognizes 39 ethnic groups
How many remaining colonies are there? Examples?
When was the UN created and why?
At the end of WWII
To function as a facilitator for discussion regarding international problems
Identify some challenges the UN has in carrying out missions.
Limited power, lacks troops, lacks authority, tries to maintain neutrality
Why has the world become more democratic?
1. Govt regulations in exchange for broadening individual rights and liberties
2. Widening of participation of policy making
3. Diffusion of democratic govt from North America to other regions
What are the 12 indicators that calculate Fragile State Index?
- based on sum of scores for 12 indicators
1. security apparatus
2. factionalized elites
3. group grievance
4. economic decline
5. uneven economic development
6. human flight & brain drain
7. state legitimacy
8. public services
9. human rights & rule of law
10. demographic pressures
11. refugees & IDP
12. external intervention
Describe the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
Which countries signed?
Which countries are suspect states?
- prevent spread of nuclear weapons & weapons technology, promote cooperation, & achieve nuclear disarmament
- US, Russia, UK, France, & China
- India, Pakistan, North Korea, & Israel
Distinctive characteristics of terrorism...
1. Trying to achieve objectives through ____?
2. Viewing ______ as a means of bringing widespread publicity to their cause.
3. Believing in a cause so strongly they are willing to _____ for it.
1. Organized acts of terror
Describe the world's major terrorist organization.
-Al Qaeda means "the base" or "the foundation"
-Duty to wage a holy war against US bc of US involvement in Saudi Arabia and Israel
What are the three types of physical boundaries?
What makes a desert boundary effective?
Deserts are hard to cross and sparsely inhabited
What makes mountains effective?
must be hard to cross; sometimes isolate nationalities on either side
What makes water effective?
most common physical boundary
visible on a map, relatively unchanging, & offer good protection
What are two cultural boundaries?
Describe geometric boundary & give an example.
Straight lines drawn on a map, usually correspond to a line of latitude
US & Canadian border along 49 North
Describe an ethnic boundary & give an example.
Coincides with differences in ethnicity (language and religion)
Language - Europe
Religion - when Britain partitioned India due to predominantly Muslim areas in the West (present-day Pakistan)
What are five state shapes?
- distance from center of state to any boundary does not vary significantly
- Benefits: ease of communication & easy to defend
- Downfalls: small in size, scarce in resources, lack population needed for labor
-Otherwise compact state with large projections created for two reasons:
1. provide state with access to resource (i.e. water)
2. Separate 2 states that otherwise would share a boundary
-Downfalls: difficult to govern & protect prorupted regions