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1

1. The study of the functioning of an organism in the presence of disease is called:
A) biology.
B) physiology.
C) pathophysiology
D) biochemistry.

C) pathophysiology

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2. The paramedic is in the BEST position to formulate an appropriate treatment plan for an ill patient if the paramedic:
A) is able to identify the etiology of the patient's illness.
B) obtains a complete list of all the patient's medications.
C) performs a head-to-toe exam to detect all abnormalities.
D) gathers a reliable medical history from the patient's family.

A) is able to identify the etiology of the patient's illness.

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3. Groups of cells form:
A) tissues.
B) organs.
C) an organism.
D) organ systems.

A) tissues.

4

4. An organ is composed of:
A) a group of cells.
B) multiple organisms.
C) identical cells and tissues.
D) various types of tissues.

D) various types of tissues.

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5. The __________, which are found within the cell's cytoplasm, operate in a cooperative and organized fashion to maintain the life of the cell.
A) ribosomes
B) organelles
C) microfilaments
D) nuclear pores

B) organelles

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6. What part of the cell produces the body's major energy source in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?
A) Nucleus
B) Mitochondria
C) Golgi complex
D) Endoplasmic reticulum

B) Mitochondria

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7. The ____________ of the cell contains RNA.
A) nucleus
B) cytoplasm
C) Golgi complex
D) mitochondria

A) nucleus

8

8. What type of tissue lines the intestines, blood vessels, and bronchiole tubes?
A) Muscle
B) Nervous
C) Epithelial
D) Connective

C) Epithelial

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9. Endothelial cells that line the inside of blood vessels:
A) are nonliving cells made of protein.
B) are made of epithelial squamous cells.
C) regulate blood flow and coagulation.
D) are composed of specialized nervous tissue.

C) regulate blood flow and coagulation.

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10. Which of the following statements regarding connective tissue is MOST correct?
A) Connective tissue is enclosed by fascia.
B) Connective tissue can transmit electrical impulses.
C) Skeletal muscle is a type of connective tissue.
D) Connective tissue binds other types of tissue together.

D) Connective tissue binds other types of tissue together.

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11. Nonstriated muscle is also called _________ muscle.
A) autonomic
B) smooth
C) skeletal
D) voluntary

B) smooth

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12. Unlike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle is:
A) striated voluntary.
B) nonstriated voluntary.
C) nonstriated involuntary.
D) striated involuntary.

D) striated involuntary.

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13. ___________ nerves exit from between the spinal vertebrae and extend to various parts of the body.
A) Cranial
B) Connecting
C) Somatic
D) Peripheral

D) Peripheral

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14. What structure conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body?
A) Axon
B) Synapse
C) Dendrite
D) Synaptic gap

A) Axon

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15. Homeostasis is MOST accurately defined as:
A) a constant effort to preserve a degree of stability or equilibrium.
B) cellular oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal from the body.
C) the balance of water or hydration in the cells and body of an organism.
D) the inability of the body to maintain a constant internal environment.

A) a constant effort to preserve a degree of stability or equilibrium.

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16. Which of the following is an example of homeostatic failure?
A) A pH balance of 7.37 with a respiratory rate of 28 breaths/min
B) Severe vomiting and diarrhea and a heart rate of 120 beats/min
C) Salt and water retention and a blood pressure of 170/98 mm Hg
D) Core body temperature of 98.2°F and an ambient temperature of 28°F

C) Salt and water retention and a blood pressure of 170/98 mm Hg

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17. In healthy adults, a loss of more than ____% of total body fluid is required to alter homeostasis and cause illness.
A) 10
B) 15
C) 20
D) 30

D) 30

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18. An endogenous ligand is:
A) any medication that binds to a receptor and causes a reaction.
B) a molecule that is produced by the body and binds to a receptor.
C) any molecule that is not naturally occurring in the human body.
D) a synthetically made hormone that acts upon the endocrine system.

B) a molecule that is produced by the body and binds to a receptor.

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19. Unlike endocrine hormones, exocrine hormones:
A) are carried to their target organs or cell groups via the blood.
B) reach their targets via a specific duct that opens into an organ.
C) diffuse through intracellular spaces to reach their target organs.
D) move through body water and act upon the cell that secreted them.

B) reach their targets via a specific duct that opens into an organ.

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20. All of the following are endocrine hormones, EXCEPT:
A) histamine.
B) insulin.
C) adrenaline.
D) thyroxine.

A) histamine.

21

21. Enlargement of the left ventricle due to chronically elevated blood pressure is called:
A) atrophy.
B) dysplasia.
C) hyperplasia.
D) hypertrophy.

D) hypertrophy.

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22. An alteration in the size, shape, and organization of cells is called:
A) atrophy.
B) metaplasia.
C) dysplasia.
D) hypertrophy.

C) dysplasia.

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23. Approximately 45% of a person's body weight is:
A) interstitial fluid.
B) intracellular fluid.
C) extracellular fluid.
D) intravascular fluid.

B) intracellular fluid.

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24. Cerebrospinal fluid and synovial fluid are MOST appropriately classified as ____________ fluids.
A) interstitial
B) intravascular
C) intracellular
D) extracellular

A) interstitial

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25. Dehydration is generally a more serious concern in older adults than in younger adults because:
A) older adults lose significantly more water through perspiration.
B) total body water constitutes only 45% of body weight in older adults.
C) renal function increases significantly in patients over 60 years of age.
D) a person's total body water increases by 10% for each 10 years of life.

B) total body water constitutes only 45% of body weight in older adults.

26

26. The net effect of osmosis is to:
A) equalize the amount of water on both sides of the cell membrane.
B) shift extracellular fluid to the intracellular and intravascular fluids.
C) passively transport a solution to an area of lower solute concentration.
D) equalize the concentrations of a solute on both sides of the cell membrane.

D) equalize the concentrations of a solute on both sides of the cell membrane.

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27. The movement of water and a dissolved substance from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure is called:
A) filtration.
B) active transport.
C) facilitated diffusion.
D) passive transport diffusion.

A) filtration.

28

28. When comparing two solutions, the solution that has a higher solute concentration and a higher osmotic pressure is referred to as a(n) __________ solution.
A) isotonic
B) hypotonic
C) hypertonic
D) crystalloid

C) hypertonic

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29. Lactated Ringer's is a(n) __________ solution because its solute concentration is equal to that of the inside of the cell.
A) colloid
B) isotonic
C) hypotonic
D) crystalloid

B) isotonic

30

30. If the sodium potassium pump is impaired due to insufficient potassium in the body:
A) the cells will shrink and eventually die.
B) sodium accumulates and causes the cells to swell.
C) excess sodium fills the extracellular space.
D) water shifts from the cell and into the extracellular fluid.

B) sodium accumulates and causes the cells to swell.