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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (81)
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1

cognitive revolution

behaviourist did not want to observe the inner workings of conscious, during the the 1950s move to cognitive

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cognitive

mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge

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language is symbolic

symbols to talk about places, actions etc. give us meaning, symbols are arbitrary, ex pencil word is symbol, doesnt actually have anything to do with the object)

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properties of language

symbolic, semantic, generative, structured

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language semantic

symbols have meaning that we can use to convey information

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language is generative

we can take different symbols and words to create sentences that have never been used before. MAke up new words over time

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language structured

rules that define our language, how words can be put together to create a sentence, how to structure sentences so we can covey information

8

phonemes

smallest speech structure, no human language actually uses all of the phonemes possible, as we get older we diminish the amount of phonemes we can hear, the ones we can receive are connected to the ones within the language we are surrounded by. EX:talk--> t a k

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morphemes

smallest unit of meaning ex: strangers--> strange, er, s

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semantics

meaning of words and word combinations, language is to convey something that has meaning connotation vs denotation

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connotation

emotional meaning

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denotation

defintion

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syntax

a system of rules for arranging words into sentences (how to organize the words within phrases) ex: swimmer, the--> the swimmer not swimmer the

14

initial vocalization

(phonemes) similar across all languages (when baby we make the same noises)

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6 month vocal development

babbling begins to resemble surrounding language, infants have preferred language, beneficial to developing language, they absorb the sounds around them

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Deaf baby babble

wanted to see if deaf babies would still babble to understand if babbling was something to develop language or just something kids did

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babble: developmental or random

babbling is actually part of the development of language

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1 yr language

first word is similar cross-culturally, words for parents

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Receptive in 1 yr olds

how much children understand (they actually understand a lot more than they can say)> expressive language (what they can say/ use how they express themselves)

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receptive> expressive language

if we can teach kids American sign language it might be easier for them to express through motion than through language

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18-24 month language

vocabulary spurt:
fast mapping (refers to when children pick up words after one exposure)
over and under extensions (over: child learns a word but applies it to many more cases than appropriate( ex ball, anything round is a ball)
Under: apply a word to only a narrow set of cases (ex dog only applies to their dog)

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end of 2nd year language

combine words, telegraphic speech (not would you please pass the milk but MILK)

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end of 3rd year language

complex ideas, plural, past tense (even in cases where its not appropriate)
over regulation

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6 years language

metalinguistic awareness: ability to reflect on use of language
begin to understand that w can play around with the way we use language

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8 year language

can use sarcasm, word play, pun

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Bilingualism: benefits

associated with metalinguistic awareness, that you can use words in different languages to mean the same thing, attention and executive function, protective benefit (in cases of dimensia-- onset 4 years later than monolingual), more grey matter

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Bilingual disadvantages

smaller vocabularies in each language, language processing speed, thought to make you loose current language, some places its banned to teach kids second language

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bilingual acquisition

2nd language easier to learn at a younger age, greater acculturation facilitates acquisition (understand culture)

29

Allen and Beatrice Gardner (1969)

chimpanzee (washoe) learned to understand 160 words in sign language, he could even put them together to make phrases HOWEver critics say he didnt learn language he was taught through reinforcement-- he just picked up on cues

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sue savage rumbaugh

chimpanzee can acquire language through lexigram (little images associated with words) Bonobo chimpanzee- kanzi