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1

Relative dating

Dating methods indicating that something is older or more recents than something else

2

Stratigraphy

The principle that undisturbed underlying geologic deposits are older than overlying geological deposits

3

Principle of superposition

In a stratigraphic sequence, the lower layers were deposited before the upper layers

4

Radio potassium-argon dating

An absolute dating technique of dating fossils especially those in very ancient volcanic rock by using potassium minerals in the same strata as a reference

5

Earliest stone tools dated to approximately?

2.6 million years old

6

If an isotope has a half-life of 4 billion years, then in 4 billion years what will happen?

Half of the original amount will still be present

7

Which would be best suited to the suited carbon 14 dating technique?

Certain organic materials less than 75000 years old

8

Where have Miocene hominid fossils been found?

Africa
Europe
Asia

9

By about 2 mya?

There were one or more species of the genus Homo present in east Africa

10

Hominin emergence is characterized by the simultaneous appearance of bipedalism, toolmaking, and a large brain

True or false

False

11

The A. afarensis hand, wrist, and foot bones are distinguishable from those of modern humans

True or false

False

12

Typical primate traits

Forward facing eyes
Grasping hands and feet
Five digits
Opposable thumbs and big toes
Orbital closure
Nails
Lesser sense of smell and hearing
Bigger brains

13

Extinction of Miocene Apes

Climate change

Tropical forests changed to cooler dryer mixed woodlands and grasslands

Does who survived did by following the tropics, adapting to forested areas, others to woodlands, and one group eventually to the ground

14

Hominin traits

Larger brains

Non honing canines

Bipedal

Language

15

Paranthropus

4-1 MYa

The robust Australopithecus
Larger, flatter face
Large

16

Monkeys

Have tails

Arms and legs of equal length

17

Apes

No tails

Longer arms than legs