Flashcards in Chapter 7 Vocab Deck (49)
The processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of five needs --- physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization --- in which, as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
Needs that are satisfied externally, such as physiological and safety needs.
The drive to become what a person is capable of becoming.
Needs that are satisfied internally, such as, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.
The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.
A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation-hygiene theory.
Factors --- such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary --- that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.
McClelland's Theory of Needs
A theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation.
Need for Achievement (nAch)
The drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed.
Need for Power (nPow)
The need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise.
Need for Affiliation (nAff)
The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
A theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation.
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
A version of self-determination theory which holds that allocation extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling.
The degree to which peoples' reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values.
The investment of an employee's physical, cognitive, and emotional energies into job performance.
A theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance.
A self-regulation strategy that involves striving for goals through advancement and accomplishment.
A self-regulation strategy that involves striving for goals by fulfilling duties and obligations.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress.
An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
A theory that says that behavior is a function of its consequences.
A theory that argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner.
The view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience.
A theory that says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice.
Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.
The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.