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Flashcards in Chapter 7 (Training) Deck (14)
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1

What is training and how is it different than development

Training
an org’s planning efforts to help employees acquire job-related k, s, and behaviors, in order to apply these on the job
develop knowledge
develop skills
changing attitudes
ex. culturally aware

Training=Today
Development= Future

2

What type of organizational problems will training resolve?

**only time we need to implement training is when there is a skills gap**

appropriate when the performance issue is a ‘can’t do’ issue
lack of basic skill
skill or knowledge deficiency - poor performance
legislation or policies requiring new knowledge or skills
new technology
customer request for new products or services
higher performance standards
new jobs


effective training key outcomes
higher net sales
higher gross profits per ee
stock growth
retention
customer satisfaction
subordinate satisfaction with supervision

3

differences between ineffective and effective training

ineffective training
“we can just deliver a program to someone and expect key outcomes”

effective training
set of integrated steps that are each needed to deliver an effective training program

4

stages of instruction design

assess needs for training

ensure readiness for training

plan training program
objectives
trainers
methods

implement training program
principles of learning
transfer of learning

evaluate results of training
feedback

5

What is needs assessment?

determines why there is a lack in performance
process of evaluating the org, ees, and ee tasks to

determine what kinds of training, if any, are necessary
answers three questions

organization: what is the context in which training will occur

person - who needs training?

task - what subjects should training cover?

6

what do we learn from assessing needs

1. what causes poor performance
2. determine if training is necessary
3. identifying the gap between ee skills and required skills
4. conditions in which training activities will incur (environment)

7

what makes ees perform poorly other than lack of training? (training is not a cure-all)

personal issues
motivation
not engaged; not enough tasks
home issues
constraint that inhibits people to perform

8

3 types of needs assessment analysis

Organization analysis
determines appropriateness of training by evaluating characteristics of the organization
looks at training in terms of
orgs strategy
makes sure training is aligned
resources available for training -
assessing environment - are people open to the idea of learning
what type of resources do we have
management's support for training activities


Task analysis
process of identifying and analyzing tasks to be trained
what are the skills, qualifications, and needs ees need to know?
need to consider:
job’s equipment and environment
safety
performance standards


Person Analysis
‘what skills people have and what they need’
process of determining individuals’ needs and readiness for training by answering three questions
do performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge, skill, or ability?
who needs training?
are these employees ready for training?

9

Characteristics of readiness for training

employee characteristics (Person)
ability to learn subject matter
favorable attitudes
motivation to learn

positive work environment (Enviornment)
eliminate situational constraints
develop sources of social support

10

Planning the training program

begins with establishing training program objectives
planner decides
who will provide the training
what topics will the training cover
what training methods to use
how to evaluate the training

11

characteristics of effective training objectives

expectations - specific behavior they will need to know how to do

quality or level of acceptable performance - how fast should you be able to do the task, quality of the task,
accuracy of the task

conditions under which the employee is to apply what he or she learned - will they be able to use instruction manual, when will they need to learn this by?

measurable performance standards - how to determine if someone can perform this task; test with 80% accuracy, etc.
resources needed to carry our desired performance or outcome - safety equipment, etc.

12

categories of training methods

1. presentation methods
passive learning
receive info provided by others
lectures, videos, workbooks, etc
used for conveying facts or comparing alternatives
Ex from training methods model
classroom and distance learning
audiovisual training
computer-based training: e-learning, EPPS

2. hands-on methods
actively involved in trying skills
on-the-job learning, simulations, role-plays, cases, simulated experiments
used for teaching specific skills, showing how skills are related to the job, how to handle interpersonal issues
Ex from training methods model
experiential, adventure programs
behavior modeling
business games and case studies
simulations - avatars/virtual reality
OJT - apprenticeships/internships
action learning - taking action and reflecting on result

3. group-building methods
trainees share ideas and experiences, build group identities, learn about interpersonal relationship and the group
tram-training, group discussions, adventuring learning, knowing that people can perform the task as a team
used for: establishing teams, managing performance of teams
ex from training methods model
team training
cross and team leader training
coordination

13

Five Principles of Learning

1. relevance
if material is relevant to ee
why should they care?
important for your success?

2. social learning
people learn from watching others ex. internships

3. active practice
practicing content that is learned

4. feedback
know what you're doing that’s good/needs improvement

5. goals
short-term, measureable, specific yet attainable

14

Kapatrick’s theory of evaluating training performance (How will you know your training was effective? 4 Levels)

Results
looking at before and after
is the organization better because of the training
does it impact the bottom line?
measures:
accidents, quality, productivity, turnover, morale(questionnaire), costs, profits

Behavior
are trainees behaving different on the job after training?
are they using skills and knowledge they learned in training?
measures
performance appraisal by superior, peer, client, subordinate (done way after training happens)
transfer of training - did this training actually result in you transferring your knowledge to the job?

Learning
to what extent do trainees have greater knowledge or skill after the training program than before?
require the trainer to give an immediate test to the trainees
ex. college
measures:
oral exam, written tests, performance tests, graded simulations

Reaction
did the trainees like the program, the trainers, the facilities?
do they think the course was useful?
what improvements can they suggest
Adv/Disadvantages:
easy
inexpensive
does not tell you if it is helpful -- small correlation to if you actually liked it/it was useful
less informative
measures:
questionnaires